What is Nationalism? What is Imperialism? What relation do they have to each other?
European imperialists used the idea of “Social Darwinism” to justify expansion It was based on Darwin’s theory of natural selection, applied to groups of people i.e. stronger societies should conquer weaker ones Social Darwinism
Germany’s collection of many independent states is unified by Otto von Bismarck from 1866-1871 Franco-Prussian war- 1870- leads to the modern German nation Nationalism grows Germany’s highly successful military model influences Japan and the Ottoman Empire What’s going on in the U.S. at this time? Germany and Italy
Like Germany, nationalistic ideas help to unify the Italian states during the mid1800s- led by Giuseppe Mazzini Italy
1700s British set up trading ports in the Mughal Empire India exports cotton, jute, and tea to Britain. Britain sells manufactured goods to India Britain defeats France, gains power in India, southeast Asia Mughal Empire weakens After the British put down an Indian revolt (sepoy rebellion), they take complete control of the government India
Most valuable colony “Jewel in the crown of the British Empire” Used Indian troops (sepoys) led by British officers
India Indian Civil Service- English administrators and judges; often used technology (such as railroads) in India to maximize benefits for Great Britain and themselves Indian National Congress – Wanted a greater role for Indians in the Civil Service – Results in higher tariffs, and greater Indian control in education and public works – initially loyal to British rulers; later protests British rule – mostly concerned about Indian elite British emphasis on production of cash crops leads to shortages of food production in India
WWI increases Indian demands for independence Gandhi
South Africa In Zulu territory, conflict emerges over grazing and farming land Shaka unites Zulu tribes Boer Wars (1899- 1902)- British fight Dutch (Boers) for control of South Africa; win.
Begins to modernize under Muhammad Ali 1869- Suez Canal is built. Increases Egypt’s strategic and economic importance – Why? Ali focuses on Cotton as main cash crop; hurts economy Expands; takes territory from Ottoman Empire Egypt
Slave trade ends in the 19 th century, largely due to moral opposition in places like Britain Berlin Conference- 1884-85 European countries meet and begin carving up Africa Apportioned inland areas to the country that had already colonized its adjacent coast Most African countries gain independence after 1946- Ethiopia (defeats Italians) and Liberia are never conquered “Scramble for Africa”
Japan Tokugawa Shogunate had unified Japan 1853, Commodore Mathew Perry opens Japan to trade (force)
Young Samurai rebel and take control of govt. Abolish the Shogun, and establish a new govt. under emperor Meiji Main goal is to strengthen economy and military Daimyo land distributed to peasants Reforms of 1873-76 end Samurai privileges Meiji Restoration-1868
Japan begins to westernize, industrialize, and urbanize – they seek western expertise and equipment, but limit foreign influence Meiji Restoration Cont.
Japanese industrialization – Population growth- nutrition, medicines – Growth of cities – Universal education system emphasizes science and technology Government deals with the strains of industrialization by encouraging Nationalism and expansion Russo-Japanese War- 1905- Japan wins Japan emerges as a power
Nationalism was the most influential political idea of this period – it created new nations, shared cultural beliefs, and led to tensions between neighboring countries