Presentation on theme: "Imperialism. The Age of Imperialism, 1850-1914 To gain power, European nations compete for colonies and trade. Nationalism Europeans exerted influence."— Presentation transcript:
The Age of Imperialism, 1850-1914 To gain power, European nations compete for colonies and trade. Nationalism Europeans exerted influence over the economic, political, and social lives of people they colonized. Europeans believe they must spread their Christian teachings to the world. Missionary Spirit Demand for raw materials and new markets spurs a search for colonies. Economic Competition Causes
The Age of Imperialism, 1850-1914 Europeans control land and people in areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Colonization Christianity is spread to Africa, India, and Asia. Christianization Europeans control trade in the colonies and set up dependent cash-crop economies. Colonial Economics Effects Europeans exerted influence over the economic, political, and social lives of people they colonized.
FormDefinitionExampleColony A country or territory governed internally by a foreign power. Somaliland in East Africa was a French Colony. Protectorate A country or territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power. Britain established a protectorate over the Niger River Delta.
Sphere of Influence An area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges. Liberia was under the sphere of influence of the United States. Economic Imperialism An independent but less developed country controlled by private business interests rather than other governments. The Dole Fruit company controlled pineapple trade in Hawaii.
Indirect Control Direct Control Local government officials used. Local government officials used. Limited self-rule. Limited self-rule. Goal: to develop future leaders. Goal: to develop future leaders. Government institutions are based on European styles but may have local rules. Government institutions are based on European styles but may have local rules. Foreign officials brought in to rule. Foreign officials brought in to rule. No self-rule No self-rule Government institutions are based only on European styles. Government institutions are based only on European styles. Examples: British colonies such as Nigeria, India, Burma British colonies such as Nigeria, India, Burma U.S. colonies on Pacaific Islands. U.S. colonies on Pacaific Islands.Examples: French colonies such as Somaliland, Vietnam. French colonies such as Somaliland, Vietnam. German colonies such as German East Africa. German colonies such as German East Africa. Portuguese colonies such as Angola. Portuguese colonies such as Angola.
Berlin Conference (1884): European countries decided they could claim African colonies just by setting up government offices in African territory. This set off a Great Scramble as Europeans rushed to colonize Africa.
Africa Before European Dominion Divided into hundreds of ethnic groups Followed traditional beliefs, Islam or Christianity Nations ranged from large empires to independent villages Africans controlled their own trade networks Europeans only had contact on African coasts
Nations compete for overseas empires Europeans wanted more land Contained large amounts of gold, diamonds, and rubber Africa was a mystery to many Europeans who penetrated Africa were: Explorers – seeking wealth and notoriety Missionaries – trying to convert Africans to Christianity Humanitarians – “westernize” the “savages”
Forces Driving Imperialism Belief in European superiority Racism Social Darwinism Factors Promoting Imperialism in Africa European technological superiority Europeans had means to control New medicines prevent diseases
A Map of Africa (1914), showing the extent of colonization
"White Man's Burden": racist patronizing that preached that the “superior” Westerners had an obligation to bring their culture to “uncivilized” peoples in other parts of the world - Poem by Rudyard Kipling
Germany and Russia especially used imperialistic drives to divert popular attention from the class struggle at home and to create a false sense of national unity.