2European traders first came to the island country in the 1500s. Cut off almost all trade with Europe in the early 1600s.1854 Japanese Shogun signed trade treaty with American Commodore Matthew C. Perry.
3The Meiji Leaders5 years after Perry’s arrival, the shogun signed trade treaties with Britain, France, Holland, Russia, and the United States.Unhappiness with the treaties led to the overthrow of the Shogun in 1868.
5New emperor Mutsuhito is given allegiance by a group of Samurai, but kept the real power for themselves.Meiji rulers looked to make Japan capable of competing with Western nations. “Rich country, strong military”; brought forms of parliamentary government to Japan, strengthened the military, and worked to transform the nation into industrial society.
7Industrialization1870s Japan began to industrialize in an effort to strengthen its economy.Avoided loans from Western banks.Revised the tax structure to raise money for investment.Developed a modern currency system and supported the building of postal and telegraph networks, railroads, and port facilities.
8New technological methods, cheap labor, and wars at the turn of the century stimulated Japan’s economy; by 1914 Japan had become one of the world’s leading industrial nations.
9Japan as a World PowerNeeding more natural resources, Japan began to establish its own overseas empire.Japan defeated the Chinese army in the Sino-Japanese War in 1894, gaining partial control over Korean trade.
10In 1904 the Japanese navy launched a surprise attack on Port Arthur (in Russian controlled Manchuria).Japan defeated Russia in Japan had now become an imperialist country, annexing Korea in 1910 and continuing to expand its empire for the next 35 years.
15China p. 714-716 Qing Dynasty 1644 to 1912 Opium War Treaty of NankingTaiping Rebellion (Civil War)Spheres of InfluenceThe Open Door PolicySino-Japanese War 1894Boxer RebellionThe Nationalist Party (Sun Yat-sen)Chinese Republic (1912)
19The Fall of the Qing Dynasty China’s political, economic, and military position weakened under the Qing Dynasty.
20Opium War 1842: Treaty of Nanking British merchants were trading Opium from India for goods, silk, tea, and porcelain.1839: Chinese forces tried to stop the smuggling, but the British navy bombarded Chinese ports defeating the Chinese.Treaty of Nanking: “unequal treaties”-granted the British payment for war losses and Hong Kong; British citizens were granted extraterritoriality which granted them the right to live under their own laws and courts.
21Taiping RebellionCivil War that broke out because of “unequal treaties”. Eventually it was crushed by British led forces.Eroded the Qing Dynasty’s control of China.
22Spheres of InfluenceBy the 1890s European powers as well as Japan claimed large sections of China as spheres of influence-areas where they had exclusive trading rights.
23Open Door PolicyThe US tried to claim that all nations should have the right to trade within China. All nations involved agreed to their policy in 1899.
24Sino-Japanese War 1894 China’s defeat led to more lost territory. From China, Japan gained the island of Taiwan and the Liaodong Peninsula as well as trading benefits in Chinese territory. The Japanese also ended China’s influence in Korea.
25Boxer RebellionThe Righteous and Harmonious Fists, practiced a Chinese form of Boxing. In 1900 the Boxers carried out attacks against foreigners and Chinese Christians in the city Beijing (Peking). Western powers and Japan sent a multinational force that ended the uprising. Empress Ci Xi who had supported the Boxers, reversed her policy.
26The Nationalist PartyMany Chinese believed that a modern republic should replace the Qing Dynasty. Sun Yat-sen will form the United League (Nationalist Party) in 1905.Their goal was to modernize China on the basis of the “Three Principles of the People”: nationalism (freedom from foreign control), democracy (representative government), and livelihood (economic well-being for all Chinese)
27Chinese Republic 1912 1911 revolution started. January 1912, Sun Yat-sen will become the 1st President of the new Chinese Republic.