3ImperialismEuropean imperialism, the process of one people ruling, controlling another for economic and political gain
4Imperialism around the World China – England – Tea and Opium Trade – Weakening of Emperor and the rise of Mao Zedong (communism) Japan – United States - Treaty of Kanagawa – Meiji Reforms – Japan Turns Imperialistic (invasions of Manchuria and China), Nanjing Massacre Latin America – United State and Europe – Nationalistic Revolutions – Control of the Panama Canal – Roosevelt Corollary. India – England – Revolution – India Independence and split of India between India (Hindu) and Pakistan (Muslim) Africa – Europe – Scramble for Africa – Control of the Suez Canal Vietnam (SE Asia) – French – Eventually leads to American Involvement in Vietnam
5The British in India Main Idea Objectives: One of the first examples of European imperialism in Asia, the British rule over India changed Indian politics, economics, and society and led to the rise of Indian nationalism.Objectives:Identify what changes set the stage for European imperialism in Asia and Africa.Explore the role d that the British East India Company played in British imperialism in India.Investigate the factors that led to the new imperialism.Identify how the European powers claimed territory in Africa.Explore how the Africans resisted European imperialism.
6Setting the Stage Imperialism Expanding Power Arrival of British in India, example of European imperialism, the process of one people ruling, controlling anotherBy 1700, Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal ruled vast territories in the AmericasEuropeans had less success ruling territory in Asia, AfricaImperialismEuropeans had built trading posts along Asian, African coats, but held little territory farther inlandBy late 1700s, European states began expanding power in Asia, AfricaTwo factors that made possible: new technologies, weakening of great empires of Asia, AfricaExpanding Power
7New TechnologiesAdvances in technology gave Europeans huge military advantageSteam-powered gunboats could attack even inland targetsRepeating rifles, machine guns, exploding shells made European armies more lethal than everAsian, African weapon makers could not match technologiesWeakening EmpireGreat empires of Asia, Africa weakening; Europeans took advantageIndia’s Mughal Empire took deep decline after 1707Ottoman Empire lost strength, had weak grasp on North African provinces throughout 1700sChina’s Qing dynasty faced rebellions; by late 1700s European armies faced limited resistance as they claimed new territories
8Students working with a partner will complete the rest of the worksheet using the word bank and the textbook
9British East India Company Early British imperialism in India was carried out by the British East India Trading Company. It soon became embroiled in Indian politics.East India Company activity limited to coastal trading cities while Mughal Empire strongMid-1700s, when empire broke apart into small states, East India Company leaders saw chance to take over Indian landsThe British Take ControlManipulated rulers of states, suggested each needed British support to keep thronePlayed rulers against each other, kept India in chaosCompany’s army took over much of India, claiming it had to restore orderKept India in Chaos
10Changes in India Making Changes Banning Customs Destroying Society East India Company made changes to Indian societyIntroduced new education system, English languageBanning CustomsIntroduced British laws banning certain customs, like satiPractice of Hindu widows throwing selves on husbands’ funeral firesDestroying SocietyBritish also invited Christian missionaries to spread beliefsSome began to believe British trying to destroy their societyStraining RelationsThought British wanted to eliminate Indian customs, Hinduism completelyRelations between Indians, British increasingly strained
11Protest and Punishment Violence and Atrocities The Sepoy Mutiny1857, strained relations exploded into rebellion, the Sepoy MutinySepoys were Indian soldiers who fought in British armyIntroduction of new type British rifle set off rebellionTo load rifle, soldier had to bite off end of ammunition cartridge greased with pork, beef fat; offended Muslim, Hindu sepoysMuslims did not eat pork; Hindus did not eat beefSepoys in Meerut refused to use cartridges; thought it plot to make them abandon Hinduism, IslamSepoys punished for protestingIn response, northern Indian sepoys rose up against BritishEventually gained control of DelhiProtest and PunishmentViolence of rebellion ferociousBoth sides committed atrocitiesSepoys killed British officers, as well as wives, childrenCaptured mutineers strapped to cannons and shot; villages burnedFighting continued two yearsViolence and Atrocities
13Results of MutinyBritish ended the rule of East India Company in 1858 as result of mutiny.British government ruled India directlyBritish moved away from some social regulations that angered many IndiansDistrust still continued between British, Indians
15India as a British Colony Colony of colony—the “jewel in the crown” of the British Empire, with political and financial rewards, national prideFor Indians, British rule source of frustration and humiliationFrustration gave rise to powerful feelings of nationalismEra of British rule in India often called British Raj, Hindi word meaning “rule”Administration carried out by government agency, Indian Civil Service (ICS)The RajThough ruling India, most ICS officials BritishICS employed very few IndiansMany educated Indians frustrated at having no say in own governmentICSMany British thought they were superiorSegregated neighborhoods; exclusive clubsWesternized IndiansPrejudiced, thought Indians incapable of governing selvesWesternization
16Life under the British Raj Raj Building ProjectsDuring Raj, British built railroads, roads, canals in IndiaBy 1910, India had fourth-largest railroad network in worldBritish invested in transportation to move troops; help sell British productsRaj CommerceIndia important market for British manufactured goodsAlso source of raw materials like cotton, tea, indigo, juteTaxes from Indian landowners paid for administration of India, Indian armyRaj ImpactBritish manufactured goods devastated India’s pre-existing textile industryHad been major exporter; British closed factories to prevent competitionMid-1800s, India primarily exported raw materials, not manufactured goods
17The Rise of Indian Nationalism Groups in India found British rule deeply disturbingIndian elites and middle classes lacked opportunitiesIndians had little power to influence decisions at higher levels of governmentNationalist movement did not take off until Indians saw themselves as having same rights as EuropeansIdea first expressed by reformer Ram Mohun Roy, 1820sFelt British violating Indian’s rights, including free speech, religionNationalist MovementRoy wrote texts, opened schools to spread nationalist ideasDespite his efforts, took several decades for movement to activate1885, Indian National Congress, first nationalist group, founded by English-speaking IndiansActivating MovementInitial requests of the Congress to British were modest, such as more positions for Indians in the ICS, and better representation on government councils.
18India as a British Colony BengalNationalism turned radical when British announced plans to partition BengalOfficials claimed breaking into two provinces would make easier to governNationalists thought partition attempt to break up Bengal’s Hindu populationRadicalsRadicals in Congress called for boycott of British goods; lasted three yearsBritish taxes on saltThe tax triggered nationalism and violence. The Salt March, inspired a wider civil disobedience movement in India.Participants vowed to wear only Indian-made garments, burned British clothSome militants attacked British officials, were punishedConsequencesBritish convinced to make concessions to Indian people1906 Muslim League formed to protect interests of Indian MuslimsIndian National Congress and Muslim League led in fight for independence
20CITIZEN COPE LYRICS"For A Dollar" Moved to the city to settle a vendetta Ran from a stellar to the hands of Isabella Was a good earner, got a little butter Moved to Calcutta, got rich by the summer Learned that an eye for an eye made the whole world blind City by city, they built sin city Mr. Benjamin must have got or needs a schilling 'Cuz he'd rather not walk in the gobs from the prison And there ain't nowhere this lonely road This lonely road won't go What pleases your heart It's not always what eases your spirit or your soul For a dollar, will you heal she? For a dollar, will you feed he? For a dollar, would you mind explaining to me why today got bought by tomorrow? For a dollar, will you hold me? For a dollar, will you love me? For a dollar, would you mind explaining to me why today got bought by tomorrow?
21The New ImperialismEuropean countries controlled only small part of Africa in 1880; but by 1914 only Ethiopia, Liberia remained independent.European powers rapidly divided AfricaPeriod known as “Scramble for Africa”Most visible example of new imperialismNew imperialism not based on settlement of coloniesEuropean powers worked to directly govern large areas occupied by non-European peoplesDriven by economic interests, political competition, cultural motives
23Entrepreneurial Colonization Economic InterestsBefore early 1800s, several European nations profited from slave trade in AfricaAfter some nations passed laws abolishing slave trade, Europeans looked to Africa as source for raw materialsMaterials like coal, metals needed to manufacture goods during Industrial RevolutionNeeds fueled Europeans’ desire for land with natural resources—available in AfricaRaw MaterialsTo gather, export natural resources, European entrepreneurs developed own mines, plantations, trade routesEntrepreneurs sometimes called on home countries to protect economic interests from European competitorsIn this way, drive for colonization came from ambitious individuals, not just European governmentsEntrepreneurial Colonization
24Political Competition Imperialism in Africa reflected struggles for power in Europe, such as long-term rivalry between France, BritainFrance expanded control over West, Central Africa; Britain began to expand colonial empire to block FrenchNationalism a FactorRise of Germany, Italy as powers contributed to the new imperialismBoth nations jumped into race for colonization to assert statusNationalism also contributed to rise of new imperialismEuropean leaders believed controlling colonies would gain them more respect from other leaders
25Cultural Motives Cultural Motives Rule Justified In addition to practical matters of economics and politics, the new imperialism was motivated by cultural attitudes.European imperialists felt superior to non-European peoplesSome began to argue humanity divided into distinct peoples, racesClaimed biological differences existed between racesRacist view—people of European descent superior to people of African, Asian descentCultural MotivesAs result, some Europeans believed rule in Africa justifiedTeaching Africans good governmentSome imperialists believed actions noble, their duty to educate those considered inferiorReferred to their influence in Africa as “the white man’s burden,” after poem by Rudyard KiplingRule Justified
26JustificationDarwinDefenders of imperialism often applied Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection to struggle between nations, racesDarwin argued species more fit for environment will survive, reproduceSocial DarwinismSocial Darwinism notion stated certain nations, races more fit than othersSocial Darwinists believed “fit” nations came to rule over “less fit” nations, often showed discrimination against citizens of ruled nationsCecil RhodesSocial Darwinism advocate Cecil Rhodes, “I contend that we are the finest race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better…”Believed British-built railway would bring benefits of civilization to all Africans
28European Claims in Africa In the 1880s, driven by economic, political and cultural motives, Europeans began to compete for additional territory in Africa.Africa, huge continent, rugged terrain; travel, control difficult1800s, scientific advances made travel, control in Africa easierScientific AdvancesDiscovery of drug quinine helped Europeans protect selves against malariaAutomatic machine gun created strong military advantageProtectionDevelopment of telegraphs, railroads, steamships helped Europeans overcome problems of communication, travelNew Developments
29No Regard for Tradition Suez Canal1869, Suez Canal influenced Britain’s interest in EgyptCanal linked Mediterranean with Red Sea, shortened trip from Europe to Indian Ocean; no need to sail around southern tip of Africa1882, Egyptian government appeared unstable; British occupied Egypt to protect British interests in Suez Canal; later established partial control as protectorate to ensure British access to canalEuropean nations competed aggressively for other territories1884–1885, European leaders met in Berlin to divide African territoryTried to prevent conflict between European nationsDivision in AfricaBerlin Conference—for European nation to claim new African territory, it had to prove it could control territoryNo attention paid to ethnic boundaries in dividing AfricaNo Regard for Tradition
30Heightened Tensions, War The Boer WarDutch SettlersBritish met opposition to land claims in southern AfricaDutch settlers, Boers, had lived in region since 1600sNo Political RightsGold discovered late 1800sBoers refused to grant political rights to foreigners, including BritishHeightened Tensions, WarBritain tried to make Boer territory part of British empire1899, war broke outBoer forces outnumberedUnion of South AfricaBritish committed numerous atrocities, defeated Boers1902, Boer territory became self-governing Union of South Africa under British control
31African Resistance The Zulu Ethiopia Africans did not passively accept European claims to rule over them. As European troops advanced on African territory, they met stiff resistance.Zulu people resisted colonialization more than 50 yearsZulu leader Shaka built strong kingdom by subduing several neighboring peoples1879, British invaded Zulu territory, annexed kingdom as colonyThe ZuluOnly nation to retain independence by matching European firepower1889, emperor Menelik II modernized nation, army1895, Italian forces invaded over treaty disputeMenelik’s forces defeated ItaliansEthiopiaEven without modern weapons, other Africans still fiercely resisted European powers.
32Belgian Congo Leopold Demand for Rubber Central Africa’s Congo Free State not ruled by European countryKing of Belgium, Leopold II, claimed territory for himselfLeopold created personal fortune exploiting Congo’s natural resources for himselfLeopold1890s, early 1900s, European, American demand for rubber increasedTo meet demand, Leopold forced Congolese subjects to extract rubber from region’s rubber trees; millions died from overwork, diseaseEventually international outcry caused Belgian government to take control of Congo, 1908Demand for Rubber