Presentation on theme: "The Scramble for Africa. The New Imperialism New Imperialism was not based upon the settlement of colonies Europeans wanted to directly govern Driven."— Presentation transcript:
The Scramble for Africa
The New Imperialism New Imperialism was not based upon the settlement of colonies Europeans wanted to directly govern Driven by economic interests, political competition and cultural motives
Economic Interests Slave trade was abolished and the industrial revolution meant that people needed raw materials for factories. Africa had plenty of land and plenty of resources.
Political Interests As each European country began to obtain land in Africa, the other Nationalistic European countries would try to obtain land to keep their competition in check. Belief = The more colonies you have, the more respect you will receive
Cultural Interests Europeans felt superior to non-Europeans This justified their rule in Africa Their noble duty was to educate and to civilize the Africans
Science and Imperialism Quinine protected Europeans against malaria. Anticipate: How do you suppose automatic machine guns, telegraphs, railroads, and steamships helped the Europeans to be Imperialistic in Africa?
Suez Canal Canal that links the Mediterranean to the Red Sea Eliminates the need for ships to sail all the way around Africa Egypt was unstable in 1882 and the British made Egypt a protectorate to ensure canal access
Berlin Conference European leaders were trying to prevent conflicts among themselves If a European nation claimed a new African territory, it had to notify the other members
The Boer War Boers = Dutch settlers who had been living in southern Africa since the 1600s. Boers discovered gold there in the 1800s and refused to grant political rights to foreigners. The British wanted southern Africa and began imprisoning British women and children and burned Boer farms
The Boer War The Dutch replied with guerilla warfare 20,000 Boer women died in the prison camps from disease Ultimately the British defeat the Boers
Belgian Congo Leopold II – King of Belgium, claimed the Congo for himself and began exploiting their natural resources Leopold forced the Congolese to work in rubber plantations and millions died from being overworked – the Belgium government takes control
African Resistence Shaka and The Zulu Menelik II in Ethiopia
The Zulu The Zulu resisted for more than 50 years Shaka Zulu was a strong leader 1879 – British invasion Zulu were under the leadership of Cetshwayo (Shaka’s nephew) It took the British about 6 months to annex Zulu lands as a British colony
Ethiopia and Menelik II Menelik II tried to establish a modern army Ethiopia was invaded by the Italians Menelik defeated the Italians at the Battle of Adwa
Other African Rebellions French West Africa: Toure led the Malinke to resist the French for 15 years, but the Malinke ultimately lost German East Africa: rebelled against the Germans for growing and exporting cotton – Maji = magic water – The Maji Maji rebellion – Germans killed tens of thousands and won