4Scramble for the Colonies Europeans entered further and further into AfricaMedical innovationsMaxim gun (early machine gun)What do you think happened as these countries moved further and further?Berlin Conference 1884
5The Berlin Conference ...The Race Was On... The competition for colonies in Africa was fierce. Nations met in Berlin, Germany in 1884 to lay down the rules for the division of Africa.The Congo River and Niger River mouths and basins would be considered neutral and open to trade.We are here to divide this magnificent African cake…5. What group was not present at the Berlin Conference? Africans6. What effect do you think the Berlin Conference had on the group not represented? Country was divided without any regard to tribal lines
6Time to Think !The thought they were superior (Social Darwinism)
7Before ImperialismThere were not really any real boundaries in Africa before Imperialism.Result- The Berlin conference cut up (the cake) any way they wanted
9The establishing of colonies signaled a change in the way of life of the Africans. The Europeans made efforts to change the political, social and economic lives of the peoples they conquered.
10Changes in Culture Lost traditions Schools/Educational advances Forced conversion to ChristianityWesternizationStill affectsAfrica today
11ImperialismMain Idea – Technological superiority allowed European nations to dominate non-developed areas and establish global empires. Guns, steam ships, and communications etc.
12The White Man’s BurdenTake up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child.
13Why did it start? Industrial Revolution Nations did not have enough resources in their own countryIndustrial Nations produced so many goods that they needed new marketsForces to look elsewhere for resourcesNations competed for coloniesIncreased need for Resources
14Why did it start? Nationalism More colonies = More Power Extreme pride in their country led them to want more powerIndustrial Nations competed for colonies
15Why did it start? White Man’s Burden An attempt to justify imperialism Mission = Spread Christianity & the Industrial RevolutionWesterners viewed anyone with different religion & life as “backwards”Westerners felt it was their duty to “civilize” the “backwards” people of the worldAn attempt to justify imperialism
20ImperialismMixed motives. Imperial powers claimed economic necessity, strategic imperatives, and a high-minded "civilizing mission."Frequently motives were confused, so it became "the white man's burden" to convert Africans to Christianity while at the same time enslaving them.Competition between imperial powers.The scramble for Africa and later for the Pacific islands illustrates the intense competition between imperial nations.The United States took over the Philippines in order to be on an equal footing with other powers already in China. Japan seized Korea and Taiwan for the same reason.Different models of colonial rule.In practice, the new imperialism varied considerably; including settler colonies such as Australia, indirect rule as in British Africa, direct rule as in French Indochina, and even the private fiefdom of Leopold II in the Belgian Congo. In all cases, ultimate authority rested with the imperial state, and local rulers had little real power.Economic colonialism.The purpose of the colony was to supply cheap raw commodities to the imperialist state and to be a market for manufactured goods.All resources, natural and human, were directed to this effort. Forests were transformed into plantations, and workers impressed into service.There was no effort to develop a colonial industry that might compete with the imperial state.Contempt for local cultures.With few exceptions, the imperial powers regarded colonial people as their inferiors and treated them as such. The French made an effort to convert and educate colonial peoples.The British also employed colonials as soldiers and minor civil servants, but made little provision for education.This disrespect contributed to a growing nationalism in India.
23BASES FOR TRADE & NAVY SHIPS IMPROVED SHIPS &RAILROADS PLACE FOR GROWING POPULATION TO SETTLEPLACE TO INVEST PROFITSWISH TO SPREAD CHRISTIANITYNEW WEAPONSPOWER & SECURITY OF GLOBAL EMPIREBASES FOR TRADE & NAVY SHIPSCauses ofNew ImperialismSPIRIT OF NATIONALISMIMPROVED SHIPS &RAILROADSNEW MEDICINESIMPROVED RIFLESNEED FOR NEW MARKETSNEED FOR NATURAL RESOURCESBELIEF THAT WESTERN WAYS ARE BESTSOCIAL DARWINISMWISH TO SHARE WESTERN CIVILIZATION
24CAUSES OF NEW IMPERIALISM NEED FOR NATURAL RESOURCESBASES FOR TRADE & NAVY SHIPSWISH TO SPREAD CHRISTIANITYNEW WEAPONSNEW MEDICINESNEED FOR NEW MARKETSPOWER & SECURITY OF GLOBAL EMPIREWISH TO SHARE WESTERN CIVILIZATIONIMPROVED SHIPS &RAILROADSPLACE FOR GROWING POPULATION TO SETTLEBELIEF THAT WESTERN WAYS ARE BESTSPIRIT OF NATIONALISMIMPROVED RIFLESPLACE TO INVEST PROFITSSOCIAL DARWINISM
25NEGATIVEPOSITIVEEuropean medicine & improved nutrition increased life span of Africans. This caused an increase in population.European domination led to an erosion of traditional African values and destroyed many existing social relationshipsModern transportation & communications; telegraphs, railroads, steamships, and telephonesAfrican peoples were treated a s inferior. Forced to work long hours for low pay.A small minority received improved education and economic opportunities.Europeans divided up Africa ignoring tribal, ethnic, and cultural boundaries. These divisions have led to ongoing tribal clashes
26Regents Question3. The 19th century term “White Man’s Burden” reflected in this cartoon shows the idea thatAsians and Africans were equal to Europeans Asians and Africans would be grateful for European help Imperialism was opposed by most Europeans Europeans had a responsibility to improve the lives of the colonial peoples4. Europeans had a responsibility to improve the lives of the colonial peoples
27Regents Question5. Based on the map, which is an accurate statement about the partitioning of Africa by European imperialist nations during the 1800’s?1. new nations were based on old tribal boundaries the cultural and ethnic diversity of the African people was disregarded3. the continent was divided equally among the colonial powers African unity was encouraged2. The cultural and ethnic diversity of the African people was disregarded
29Cecil Rhodes vision of a English-speaking Empire became a reality. Boer WarAFRICAOutcomesEngland v. Dutch FarmersThe Boers resisted British victory & practiced guerilla warfareBritish arrested & imprisoned BoersBoers finally gave up (1910)Orange Free State & Transvaal became part of British AfricaCreated the Union of South AfricaFrom Cape to CairoCecil Rhodes vision of a English-speaking Empire became a reality.
30Scars left on Africa Created problems between African tribes Forced ethnic groups into same nationDestroyed African cultureIn many parts, segregation & class system based on color were introducedAfrica has yet to recover corruption, instability, violence & authoritative regimes are common
32The Congo Sparks Interest King Leopold II________________of Belgium commissioned the explorer Henry Stanley to secure agreements from the tribes who inhabited the Congo Basin in Africa. Stanley did so through a combination of promises, threats and trickery.In 1882 a treaty was signed with local chiefs of the Congo River valley. The treaties gave King Leopold II of Belgium personal control over the land.
33Abuses of the Native Congolese People Leopold licensed companies that brutally exploited Africans, by forcing them to collect sap from rubber plants.Africans harvesting rubber in the Congo.
34The system was unusually exploitative and brutal, even in Colonial Africa. Whipping was a common form of punishment for workers who did not meet their quotas or who disobeyed the white man's rules.
35The man lost his hand from ropes tied too tight by Belgian Rubber Company soldiers. The boy lost his hand from soldiers that wanted to claim him as a kill.
36A man who refused to go work in the rubber plantation looks at the severed foot and hand of his 5 year old daughter.
37What do you think could be done to stop these crimes against humanity? YOU DECIDEBased on the previous images, why do you think King Leopold conducted such serious penalties on the Congolese people?What do you think could be done to stop these crimes against humanity?
38"My yearly income is millions of guineas" 3. Based on this picture and what you have just learned, what do you think is King Leopold’s primary interest in the Congo?4. Create a title for this picture."My yearly income is millions of guineas"
39The World Demanded Changes Much of Europe frowned upon these atrocities, which led to the end of Leopold's rule of the basin. His financial backing eroded to the point that Leopold required loans from the Belgian government.In 1908 Belgium took the lands for itself as the Belgian Congo. Many of the hardships of the natives were reduced and living conditions were improved.
40Three Groups Clash over South Africa The history of South Africa is a history of _________, ______ ___ _______ clashing over land and resources. Although the African lands seemed empty to the Europeans, there were huge areas claimed by various ethnic groups.Africans, Dutch and British
41Zulu ExpansionThe _____ were a South African tribe that placed an emphasis on military organization and skill, as established by their legendary leader ____________. Under Shaka’s rule, the Zulu broadened their land claims throughout southern Africa.ZuluShaka Zulu
42How does this ABC book portray the native people in the colonies? How do they portray themselves?
43British Boers and Settlers in the Cape The Dutch first came to the Cape of Good Hope in 1652 to establish a way station for their ships sailing between the Dutch East Indies and home. _______(Dutch for “farmers”), were Dutch settlers who gradually established large farms. When the British took over the Cape Colony in the 1800s, the Boers left seeking their own state.BoersCape Town CastlePiet Retief, helpedto lead Boers toOrange Free State
44The Great Trek Great Trek In the 1830s, to escape the British, several thousand Boers began to move north. This movement has become known as the ____________. The Boers soon found themselves fighting fiercely with Zulu and other African groups whose land they were taking.Great Trek
45+ = Diamonds Gold The Boer War __________and ________were discovered in southern Africa in the 1860s and 1880s. Suddenly, “outsiders” from all parts of the world rushed in to make their fortunes. The Boers tried to keep the outsiders from gaining political rights. An attempt to start a rebellion against the Boers failed. The Boers blamed the British. In 1899, the Boers took up arms against the British. This conflict was known as__________________.DiamondsGoldThe Boer War
469. Compare these two pictures of soldiers.Which group seems more advanced?10. Which is the picture of British soldiers and which pictureis of the Boer soldiers? How did you come to your conclusions?
47The Boer WarIn many ways the Boer War between the British and the Boers was the first modern “total” war. The Boers launched commando raids and used guerrilla tactics against the British. The British countered by burning Boer farms and imprisoning women and children in disease-ridden concentration camps. Britain won the war.
48Cecil Rhodes was instrumental in assuring British dominance of southern Africa. He founded the De Beers Mining Company, eventually controlling 90% of the world’s diamond production. After becoming prime minister of the Cape Colony (now South Africa) in 1890, he used his influence to strengthen British control over the region.
49In 1902, the Boer republics were joined into a self-governing ______________________, controlled by the British.Union of South Africa
50Observing this photo, what are some of the positive and negative aspects of Imperialism?
51Independence Emergence of western-educated Africans Founded nationalist groups to push for independenceAchieved political independence by end of the twentieth centuryPresent day Africa