Presentation on theme: "European Colonialism in Africa"— Presentation transcript:
1European Colonialism in Africa European Colonialism in Africa scramble for Africa “Carving the Magnificent African cake”European Colonialism in Africa
2Prior to mid-1800s = Imperialism What is Imperialism?literally the act of building an empire, but has the connotation of one country economically dominating another
3Imperialism / Maritime Empires 1450-mid~1800sMotivated by spice trade (profit motive)Expansion was gradualEuropean enclaves existed along coastsIndirect rule (subjugated local rulers)Little to no influence on local culture
5Mid-1800s Transition from Imperialism to Colonialism
6After mid-1800s = Colonialism What is Colonialism?the act of building colonies, areas in which a country has total economical and political (direct or indirect) control over a given region. However, the connotation of the word usually only refers to Europe
7Colonialism / Land Empires mid~1800s-1914Motivated by competition (empire motive)Expansion is rapidEuropeans move inward to rule whole countriesDirect ruleHeavily influenced the “inferior” local cultures (taught European languages, customs etc)
8AFRICA WAS ALMOST COMPLETELY TAKEN OVER BY EUROPEAN NATIONS.
10What caused European colonization? Gold =Industrial RevolutionAllows for the quick consumption & production of goods.Desire for Raw MaterialsDesire to sell goods to new people
11Example of Economic Motives Railroads built in Africa by colonial powers
12What caused European colonization? God =Desire to spread Christianity & European cultureShows belief in racial superiorityDeliberate Westernization
13Example of Cultural Motives “The White Man’s Burden” by Kipling
14“White Man’s Burden” Analysis The White Man’s Burden By Rudyard Kipling TAKE up the White Man's burden - Send forth the best ye breed - Go bind your son's to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness On fluttered folk and wild - Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half devil and half child.
15Take up the White Man's burden - In patience to abide To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain, To seek another's profit, And work another's gain.
16Take up the White Man's burden - The savage wars of peace - Fill full the mouth of famine And bid the sickness cease; And when your goal is nearest The end for others sought, Watch Sloth and heathen Folly Bring all your hopes to nought…
20What caused European colonization? Glory =Nationalism among European countries fuels competitionSuperior weapons of EuropeansInternal rivalries & weakness of African governments (result of slave trade)
21Reason for Change Allow Europeans to move inland more effectively Innovations:Maxim GunQuinineSteamship, railroads, telegraphsAllow Europeans to move inland more effectively
22Berlin Conference1884 meeting to clarify European claims to African landsAttended by: Britain, France, Germany, Portugal, Denmark, Spain, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, the Ottoman Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the U.S.Symbolic of:“Colonialism”Formalized the scramble for AfricaGrowing European nationalismWho was not represented at the conference? Why?
27TreatyDirections: Answer the following questions based on the treaty document.What are the Africans (chiefs) getting from the treaty? What are the Europeans (Royal Niger Company) getting?Why were Africans interested/willing to sign such a treaty? Europeans?What does this treaty say about the actions of Europeans during this time period?
28Types of African Colonies Tropical DependenciesSettler Colonies
29Effects of Imperialism African economy became dependent on trade with EuropeCollapse of local economiesAfricans focus on using natural resources to trade for manufactured goodsAfrican culture is westernizedBreakdown of local cultureSpread of ChristianityImproved local healthcare & education systemsEuropean control & boundaries create civil wars and government weakness