Presentation on theme: "EUROPEAN COLONIALISM IN AFRICA SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA “CARVING THE MAGNIFICENT AFRICAN CAKE” European Colonialism in Africa."— Presentation transcript:
EUROPEAN COLONIALISM IN AFRICA SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA “CARVING THE MAGNIFICENT AFRICAN CAKE” European Colonialism in Africa
Prior to mid-1800s = Imperialism What is Imperialism? literally the act of building an empire, but has the connotation of one country economically dominating another
Imperialism / Maritime Empires 1450-mid~1800s Motivated by spice trade (profit motive) Expansion was gradual European enclaves existed along coasts Indirect rule (subjugated local rulers) Little to no influence on local culture
Mid-1800s Transition from Imperialism to Colonialism
After mid-1800s = Colonialism What is Colonialism? the act of building colonies, areas in which a country has total economical and political (direct or indirect) control over a given region. However, the connotation of the word usually only refers to Europe
Colonialism / Land Empires mid~1800s-1914 Motivated by competition (empire motive) Expansion is rapid Europeans move inward to rule whole countries Direct rule Heavily influenced the “inferior” local cultures (taught European languages, customs etc)
What caused European colonization? 1. Gold = Industrial Revolution Allows for the quick consumption & production of goods. Desire for Raw Materials Desire to sell goods to new people
Example of Economic Motives Railroads built in Africa by colonial powers
What caused European colonization? 2. God = Desire to spread Christianity & European culture Shows belief in racial superiority Deliberate Westernization
Example of Cultural Motives “The White Man’s Burden” by Kipling
“White Man’s Burden” Analysis The White Man’s Burden By Rudyard Kipling TAKE up the White Man's burden - Send forth the best ye breed - Go bind your son's to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness On fluttered folk and wild - Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half devil and half child.
Take up the White Man's burden - In patience to abide To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain, To seek another's profit, And work another's gain.
Take up the White Man's burden - The savage wars of peace - Fill full the mouth of famine And bid the sickness cease; And when your goal is nearest The end for others sought, Watch Sloth and heathen Folly Bring all your hopes to nought…
Analyze the Cartoon
Social Relations b/t Colonizer & Colonized
What caused European colonization? 3. Glory = Nationalism among European countries fuels competition Superior weapons of Europeans Internal rivalries & weakness of African governments (result of slave trade)
Reason for Change Innovations: Maxim Gun Quinine Steamship, railroads, telegraphs Allow Europeans to move inland more effectively
Berlin Conference 1884 meeting to clarify European claims to African lands Attended by: Britain, France, Germany, Portugal, Denmark, Spain, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, the Ottoman Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the U.S. Symbolic of: “Colonialism” Formalized the scramble for Africa Growing European nationalism Who was not represented at the conference? Why?
African Borders before Conference
European Borders after Conference
Modern Africa Boundaries (set by Conference – note similarity to previous slide)
Treaty Directions: Answer the following questions based on the treaty document. 1. What are the Africans (chiefs) getting from the treaty? What are the Europeans (Royal Niger Company) getting? 2. Why were Africans interested/willing to sign such a treaty? Europeans? 3. What does this treaty say about the actions of Europeans during this time period?
Effects of Imperialism 1. African economy became dependent on trade with Europe Collapse of local economies Africans focus on using natural resources to trade for manufactured goods 2. African culture is westernized Breakdown of local culture Spread of Christianity Improved local healthcare & education systems 3. European control & boundaries create civil wars and government weakness