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Scramble for Africa.

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Presentation on theme: "Scramble for Africa."— Presentation transcript:

1 Scramble for Africa

2 Effects of Industrialization
European countries industrialize Need raw materials to make goods Need markets to sell those goods Strong European countries seize weaker African countries: this is IMPERIALISM

3 Control of Africa Europeans in 1400’s could not control Africa
African armies kept them out As late as 1880 Europeans only controlled 10% of Africa (mostly along coast)

4 The Congo Leopold II of Belgium sends Henry Stanley into Africa
Makes treaties that give Leopold control of territory 80 times bigger than Belgium This area belonged to Leopold personally Tens of millions of Africans died harvesting rubber sap The Belgium government took control from Leopold Other nations began claiming parts of Africa


6 Belief in European Superiority
Racism-Europeans believed their race was superior to others This was based on Social Darwinism Social Darwinism was off shoot of Darwin’s ideas on natural selection and survival of the fittest Since non-Europeans had not made scientific and technological breakthroughs they were considered to be on a lower scale

7 Charles Darwin

8 Africa’s Wealth Europeans discovered gold and diamonds in Africa
This began the “Scramble for Africa”

9 Raw Materials Gold Copper Tin Diamonds
Cash crops-peanuts, palm oil, cocoa, and rubber (these crops replaced food crops and led to starvation)

10 Factors Promoting Imperialism
Technology Machine guns Steam engine allowed for river boats and trains Drug quinine helped control malaria Africans were not united—Europeans fostered rivalries

11 Berlin Conference Quest for Africa brought Europeans to brink of war
Europeans met in Berlin, Germany to set rules A nation could claim lands if they notified other countries AND showed they could control the area No African leaders were invited to the conference

12 South Africa and The Boer War
South Africa had the highest concentration of white settlers (200,000 by 1865). Dutch settlers were known as Boers or Afrikaners. During Napoleonic Wars area seized by British British encouraged settlement. British named area Cape Colony.

13 Boer Republics 1830’s Boers disgusted with British rule and migrate north Called “The Great Trek” Set up two states—Orange Free State and Transvaal (later called South African Republic)


15 Cecil Rhodes

16 Cecil Rhodes Started gold and diamond operations in South Africa
Gained control of territory north of Transvaal which he named Rhodesia. Championed British expansion in Africa Appointed Prime Minister of Cape Colony Dismissed when discovered he planned to overthrow South African Republic without British approval.

17 Boer Wars British v Boers 1899-1902 Boer resistance angered British
Extreme reprisals burnt crops and forced 120,000 women and children into camps At least 20,000 died British won Created Union of South Africa that contained old Cape Colony and Boer Republics


19 African Nationalism European colonialism exposed Africans to western ideas. A new class of African leaders had been educated in colonial schools and or in western nations. These new leaders learned of ideas such as democracy, equality, and political freedom. These leaders mostly came to resent the Europeans for the hypocrisy of teaching these ideas while practicing the complete opposite.

20 Inequity Leads to Discontent
While many Africans became educated and were very capable of working in the colonial governments they were segregated from whites and kept in low level positions. Segregation, racism and inequity led to discontent among the educated and middle class Africans. By the early 20th century native peoples across Africa began to organize political parties and movements to end colonial rule.

21 Organized Movements Nigerians formed “Peoples Union” to help fight for more rights. In South Africa, many African leaders came together to form the African National Congress (ANC) Still active today. Describe similarities between the position of the Africans under colonial rule and the position of the Third Estate in France before the French Revolution.

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