Presentation on theme: "The Scramble for Africa Ch 11 Section 1. Learning targets I can…….. 1.Explain the term imperialism 2.Identify examples of 18 th -19 th century imperialism."— Presentation transcript:
The Scramble for Africa Ch 11 Section 1
Learning targets I can…….. 1.Explain the term imperialism 2.Identify examples of 18 th -19 th century imperialism. 3.Describe the relationship between 18 th and 19 th century imperialism. 4.Discuss conflicts that arose as a result of 18 th - 19 th century imperialism. 5.Describe the main reasons that th century imperialism took place.
Learning targets continued 6. Evaluate the impacts of imperialism on the conquered people. 7. Describe conflict that occurred between nations practicing imperialism. 8. Prepare an extended response describing the cause and effect of imperialism during the 18 th -19 th century.
Africa before European domination Africa was divided into hundreds of ethnic and linguistic groups. Traditional African beliefs were practiced along with Christianity and Islam. Africa was controlled by large empires and many small villages. By 1880 Europe controlled only 10% of African soil (coastal), that would change. Africans controlled their own trade systems.
The Congo David Livingstone, a Scottish missionary traveled deep into Africa and discovered much before being found by Henry Stanley, a reporter. Stanley then began to explore the Congo sparking an interest in it. Stanley signed many treaties giving control of the land to Belgium. (King Leopold) Belgium companies brutalized the population as 10 million natives died of Belgium abuses. Belgium then took control of the land in 1908 and other European countries followed.
Causes of imperialism Belief of Europeans in racial superiority. Social Darwinism- the belief that evolution and nature apply to humanity, survival of the fittest applied. A need for raw materials (industrial rev.) Establish trade networks for Europeans Religious conversion. New technology
Factors promoting imperialism Technology, new weapons, new steam ships, railroads. Africans susceptible to disease, Europeans had quinine for malaria. Europeans played off African rivalries on one another and kept them from becoming unified.
The Division of Africa With gold and diamonds in southern Africa, the Europeans began a strong interest in it. France began to push west from the south western coast towards Sudan. Berlin Conference- in , European nations met to establish rules for the colonization of Africa. They agree any European nation could take parts of Africa by notifying other European nations. (no African consent required) By 1914 Africa was divided up with only Ethiopia and Liberia remaining free. New boundaries did not consider the rights or needs of Africans.
The need for raw materials Africans did buy many of Europe’s goods. The real wealth for the Europeans came from raw mineral resources found in Africa. Belgian Congo- tin and copper South Africa- diamonds and gold Cash crop plantations such as peanuts, palm oil, cocoa and rubber replaced food as a source of agricultural production. Famine and starvation would soon become a problem.
The clashes in S. Africa Zule fight the British -Shaka the leader of the Zulu formed a well trained army in an effort to create a bigger state. -His successors failed to continue his strengths and British invaders moved in. -The Zulu bravely fought the British using spears and shields but eventually were defeated by the British weapons at the battle of Ulundi. -By 1887, the Zulu had fallen under British domination.
The Boer Wars The Boers were Dutch settlers (farmers) who had arrived in Africa in the 1600’s. They built large farms through the 1800’s until the British arrived. In the 1830’s, they moved north to escape British rule in what is called The Great Trek. The Zulu then found themselves fighting the Zulu and other tribes whose lands they were taking.
The Boer Wars When diamond was discovered in the late 1890’s. the British sought to create a rebellion. The Boers fought back against the British using guerilla tactics, Britain burned much of the Boer lands in retaliation. The British used concentration camps and killed over 14,000 Africans were killed here. By 1910, the Boers were defeated and the union of South Africa was formed under British rule.
The Boer Wars
An example of imperialism is 1.Two nations blending together cooperatively 2.Cultural exchanges to promote economic prosperity. 3.A military invasion by a stronger nation 4.A weaker country building up its army
The nation that first began establishing control in Africa was 1.Great Britain 2.Portugal 3.Spain 4.Belgium
What happened to the Zulu? 1.They conquered most of S. Africa by They were defeated by the British 3.They blended with the Boers to from the Republic of S. Africa 4.They migrated to Asia
Who were the Boers? 1.British settlers who defeated the Zulu 2.German migrants who ended slavery 3.Dutch farmers who were defeated by the British 4.Africans living along the Congo basin