Presentation on theme: "Chapter 27: The Scramble for Africa"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 27: The Scramble for Africa Sections 1-2
2 The Scramble for Africa Section 1The Scramble for AfricaIgnoring the claims of African ethnic groups, kingdoms,and city-states, Europeans establish colonies.NEXT
3 Do Now:How does this political cartoon represent imperialism in Africa?Who do you think the snake represents? Why?Create a title for this cartoon.
4 The Scramble for Africa Africa Before European DominationProblems Discourage Exploration• Armies, rivers, disease discourage explorationNations Compete for Overseas Empires• Imperialism—seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country• Missionaries, explorers, humanitarians reach interior of AfricaThe Congo Sparks Interest• Henry Stanley helps King Leopold II of Belgium acquire land in Congo• Leopold brutally exploits Africans; millions die• Belgian government takes colony away from Leopold• Much of Europe begins to claim parts of AfricaNEXT
5 The Congo Sparks Interest King Leopold II________________of Belgium commissioned the explorer Henry Stanley to secure agreements from the tribes who inhabited the Congo Basin in Africa. Stanley did so through a combination of promises, threats and trickery.In 1882 a treaty was signed with local chiefs of the Congo River valley. The treaties gave King Leopold II of Belgium personal control over the land.
6 Abuses of the Native Congolese People Leopold licensed companies that brutally exploited Africans, by forcing them to collect sap from rubber plants.Africans harvesting rubber in the Congo.
7 The system was unusually exploitative and brutal, even in Colonial Africa. Whipping was a common form of punishment for workers who did not meet their quotas or who disobeyed the white man's rules.
8 The man lost his hand from ropes tied too tight by Belgian Rubber Company soldiers. The boy lost his hand from soldiers that wanted to claim him as a kill.
9 The World Demanded Changes Much of Europe frowned upon these atrocities, which led to the end of Leopold's rule of the basin. His financial backing eroded to the point that Leopold required loans from the Belgian government.In 1908 Belgium took the lands for itself as the Belgian Congo. Many of the hardships of the natives were reduced and living conditions were improved.
10 Forces Driving Imperialism Belief in European Superiority• Race for colonies grows out of national pride• Racism—belief that one race is better than others• Social Darwinism—survival of the fittest applied to human societyFactors Promoting Imperialism in Africa• Technological inventions like steam engine, Maxim gun help conquest• Perfection of quinine protects Europeans from malaria• Within Africa, Africans are divided by language and cultureNEXT
11 The Division of Africa The Lure of Wealth • Discovery of gold and diamonds increases interest in colonizationBerlin Conference Divides Africa• Berlin Conference—14 nations agree on rules for division (1884–85):- countries must claim land and prove ability to control it• By 1914, only Liberia and Ethiopia are free of European control Demand for Raw Materials Shapes Colonies• Raw materials are greatest source of wealth in Africa• Businesses develop cash-crop plantationsNEXT
12 + = Three Groups Clash over South Africa Zulus Fight the British • Shaka—Zulu chief—creates centralized state around 1816• British defeat Zulus and gain control of Zulu nation in 1887Boers and British Settle in the Cape• Boers, or Dutch farmers, take Africans’ land, establish large farms• Boers clash with British over land, slaves- move north to escape BritishThe Boer War• Boer War between British, Boers begins in 1899• British win; Boer republics united in Union of South Africa (1910)+=NEXT
13 Section 2ImperialismCASE STUDY: NigeriaEuropeans embark on a new phase of empire building that affects both Africa and the rest of the world.NEXT
14 Imperialism A New Period of Imperialism Extending Influence CASE STUDY: NigeriaA New Period of ImperialismExtending Influence• Europeans want to control all aspects of their colonies:- influence political, social lives of people- shape economies to benefit Europe- want people to adopt European customsForms of Control• Europeans develop four forms of control of territory:- colony—governed by a foreign power- protectorate—governs itself, but under outside control- sphere of influence—outside power controls investment, trading- economic imperialism—private business interests assert controlContinued . . .NEXT
15 • Europeans use two methods to manage colonies: - direct control continued A New Period of ImperialismMethods of Management• Europeans use two methods to manage colonies:- direct control- indirect controlIndirect Control• Limited self-rule for local governments• Legislative body includes colonial, local officialsDirect Control• Paternalism—Europeans provide for local people, but grant no rights• Assimilation—adaptation of local people to ruling cultureNEXT
16 • Britain conquers southern Nigeria using both diplomacy and force A British ColonyGaining Control• Britain conquers southern Nigeria using both diplomacy and force• Conquest of northern Nigeria through Royal Niger Company• In 1914, Britain claims all of Nigeria as a colonyManaging the Colony• Nigeria is culturally diverse area, with about 250 ethnic groups• British use indirect rule successfully with Hausa-Fulani• Yoruba and Igbo chiefs resent limits on their powerNEXT
17 African Resistance Africans Confront Imperialism • Broad resistance to imperialism, but Europeans have superior weaponsUnsuccessful Movements• Algeria actively resists French for almost 50 years• Samori Touré fights French in West Africa for 16 years• In German East Africa, people put faith in spiritual defense• Results in about 75,000 deaths; famine kills twice as manyEthiopia: A Successful Resistance• Menelik II, emperor of Ethiopia in 1889, resists Europeans- plays Europeans against each other- stockpiles arsenal of modern weapons- defeats Italy, remains independentNEXT
19 Observing this photo, what are some of the positive and negative aspects of Imperialism?
20 The Legacy of Colonial Rule Negative Effects• Africans lose land and independence, many lose lives• Traditional cultures break down• Division of Africa creates problems that continue todayPositive Effects• Colonialism reduces local fighting• Sanitation improves; hospitals and schools created• Technology brings economic growthNEXT