Presentation on theme: "Samori Toure of the Mandinka. Built his Mandika empire by 1875 was a strong ruler and had an army of about 30,000 men both infantry and cavalry. Converted."— Presentation transcript:
Samori Toure of the Mandinka. Built his Mandika empire by 1875 was a strong ruler and had an army of about 30,000 men both infantry and cavalry. Converted to Islam as a youth Used Islam to unify the Mandika people so during partition they were united. Bought riles from Sierra Leone had is own factory where he manufactured and repaired guns.
Samori Toure Fought the French in 1887 and both parties sued for peace each with different intensions. he divided his army into 3 divisions the Front,the rear and the middle. Tried to collaborate with the British but they turned him down, tried to forge an alliance with other African rulers they too turned him down too scared of the French Samori had to fight alone
Fought again in 1891 and Samori used Scorched – earth Policy to avoid the French artillery and machine guns. This method slowed the French advancement, He adopted surprise attack and withdrawal. Crops animals and Villages were destroyed. Forced French to stop invasion in 1892. 1893 Fighting started again he had to conquer other people to get land
Samori Scored several victories against the French but as he retreated to barren lands famine greatly weakened his soldiers and he gave up fighting in 1898. He was exiled to Gabon where he died in 1900. Samori resisted the French for over 10 years again here it was the Maxim guns that won the day.
The Ndebele Rebellion Ndebele had fled from Shaka and his wars in South Africa in 1820s and moved to the Limpopo river in modern Zimbabwe. Their king was known as Lobengula on the eve of Scramble The British were interested in gold and feared other powers such as Portuguese and the Germans They also feared the Boers So Rev Moffat convinced Lobengula to sign a treaty of trade and not to engage with other countries
He was cheated by a missionary Rev. John Moffat and Rev. Helm who interpreted the treaty wrongly that Lobengula had signed off his land. This was the so called Rudd Concession of 1888 It gave Cecil Rhodes permission to minerals in his land
The treaty was in two parts: written and verbal. Verbal favored Lobengula while written favored the BSA Europeans started to move to Matabeleland in 1890 to establish their home Activities of rival miners and educated Africans alerted Lobengula who realized that there were two treaties and Rev Helm had cheated him
He summoned the Indunas (council) The pro- British induna who advised him was killed together with the family Wrote to Britain to denounce the treaty Sent a delegation to meet the queen in 1889 but to no avail. Having realized that they had been swindled of land and they are pastoralists There was no repudiation of the treaty so he resorted to fight
Ndebelle Rebellion They also resented British taking their Land & cattle So they took up arms and fought in 1893 and 1896 in both wars they were defeated due to maxim guns. 100 British troops were killed and hundreds of the Ndebele warriors Ndebele were driven out of their land Rhodes negotiated for peace as Ndebele were still fighting since people were dying on both sides so the rebellion ended in 1896.
Primary resistance, In these armed conflicts Africans were defeated due to the following: Superior Weapons. Divide and rule policy. Use of African auxiliaries. Enticing collaborators by promising them loot such as land and cattle e.g. Buganda that was given Bunyoro lands