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C. The Scramble for Africa
C. The Scramble for Africa 1. King Leopold of Belgium a. 1870’s, sent a mission into the interior of Africa *Establish trade with leaders of the Congo (central Africa) b. Belgium’s presence in Africa set off a scramble among European powers to establish colonies in Africa 2. The Berlin Conference, 1884 a. To avoid fighting among European nations, leaders met in Berlin to set up rules for African colonization *The African continent was divided with little thought to the peoples who lived there b. New Imperialism had a long-lasting and strong impact on Africa *Prior to 1850, most African nations had enjoyed autonomy *Seventy years later, most of Africa was under European rule -only Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent
C. The Scramble for Africa (cont’d) 3. Battle for Southern Africa a. The Zulu Empire *An African leader named Shaka organized Zulu warriors to fight European traders -He would unify the Zulu nation b. Arrival of Europeans *Dutch farmers (Boers) settled in S. Africa -Built Cape Town as supply station -Traders and herders began to move north as early as the 1700’s *Early 1800’s the British took the Cape Colony from the Dutch c. Zulu Resistance *Tension and conflict with the Zulus increased throughout the 1800’s -The Zulu’s had a short lived victory in 1870’s, but advanced weaponry of the British crushed Zulu resistance *Tribal tension would increase and conflict would break out btw British and many other tribal groups
C. The Scramble for Africa (cont’d) 3. Battle for Southern Africa (cont’d) d. The Boer War *Cecil Rhodes became PM of the Cape Colony in 1890 -under his leadership, Great Britain expanded its control of South Africa *Late 1800’s, Britain decided to annex all the Boers Republics -The Boers resisted; War broke out btw 1899-1902, British won -1910, the Boer Republics were combined w/the Cape Colony to form the Union of South Africa -Left a legacy of distrust and hatred 4. Anti-Slave Legislation and Human Rights Violations a. Most European nations abolished the slave trade prior to the “Scramble for Africa” *Illegal slave trading would continue, however b. Atrocities against the native peoples would escalate throughout the 1800’s and into the 1900’s *Development of racial hierarchies and racial codes (Apartheid) *Mutilations and executions to support mercantilism (King Leopold II)
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