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Hymenomycetes: Gasteromycetes Mycology (Bio 594, Special Topics) M. Marshall, 2013 Shippensburg University (See last slide for additional credits)

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Presentation on theme: "Hymenomycetes: Gasteromycetes Mycology (Bio 594, Special Topics) M. Marshall, 2013 Shippensburg University (See last slide for additional credits)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hymenomycetes: Gasteromycetes Mycology (Bio 594, Special Topics) M. Marshall, 2013 Shippensburg University (See last slide for additional credits)

2 From Hibbett (2006). Mycologia 98: 917--925 Agaricomycotina

3 Gasteromycetes Basidiospores mature inside basidiocarp Basidiospores not forcibly discharged (statismospores) Do not comprise a monophyletic (natural) group; these forms have evolved at least four different times Wide range of different types of basidiocarps, both epigeous and hypogeous

4 Orders Lycoperdales – puffballs Tulostomatales – stalked puffballs Sclerodermatales – earth balls Phallales – stink horns Nidulariales – bird ’ s nest fungi

5 Terminology Statismospores – Basidiospores that are formed symmetrically on sterigmata and are not forcibly discharged

6 Gleba – Fertile portion, contains basidia and basidiospores – May contain capillitium (coarse, thick-walled hyphae) intersperced Image of Calvatia gigantea from Eugen Gramberg (1913) Pilze unserer HeimatEugen GrambergPilze unserer Heimat 01-10-07/01J07K+3.jpg More Terminology

7 Peridioles – Small structures containing basidiospores and basidia, may be actively ejected by rain splash, etc. Peridium – Outer covering of basidiocarp; may be multilayered Even more Terminology

8 Order Lycoperdales Includes common puffballs and earthstars World-wide distribution Most species are saprotrophs, some are mycorrhizal

9 Lycoperdales Morphology Basidiocarps often have sterile subgleba that gives them a stalked appearance Peridium consists of 2-4 layers – Endo-, meso- and exoperidium Immature gleba is white and uniform Mature gleba is dark and powdery – contains basidiospores and capillitium Basidiospores dark, globose, ornamented

10 Puffball Morphology


12 Common taxa Lycoperdon – Common puffballs, exoperidium often warty and wearing away to reveal smooth, papery endoperidium Geastrum – Earthstars – Exoperidium + mesoperidium are tough and split in stellate manner; endoperidium thin and papery

13 G. Barron Miller and Miller 1988 Lycoperdon

14 From Miller and Miller, 1988

15 Geastrum (from C. Stiles)

16 Order Tulastomatales Stalked puffballs; stalk is often below ground Basidiospores dark, globose, warted at maturity Saprotrophs Representatives: – Calostoma – glutinous stalk; temperate and tropical regions – Tulastoma – dry stalk; arid regions

17 Tulastoma (from Miller and Miller, 1988) Calostoma cinnabarina

18 Order Sclerodermatales Earth balls and false earth stars One-layered peridium in most taxa; peridium wears away to expose gleba Immature gleba is dark Gleba organized into peridioles or locules Basidiospores reticulate to warted, thick-walled Ectomycorrhizal – Pinaceae and Fagaceae in Northern Hemisphere – Also with Myrtaceae in Southern Hemisphere

19 Common Taxa Astraeus – False earth star; peridium two-layered and separates Pisolithus – Large, unattractive, club-shaped basidiocarps with persistent peridioles Scleroderma – Earth balls; look like tough, above-ground truffle due to thick peridium and irregular shape; basidia formed in locules

20 Astraeus (from Miller and Miller, 1988)

21 Pisolithus tinctorius (B. Callan) From Miller and Miller, 1988

22 Pisolithus tinctorius (from B. Callan)

23 Scleroderma cepa

24 Scleroderma citrina (from G. Barron )

25 Order Nidulariales Bird ’ s nest fungi and cannon ball fungus Basidiocarps oval, urn- or trumpet-shaped Formed in clusters on dead wood (saprotrophs) One- to three-layered peridium Basidia produced in persistent, thick-walled peridioles – Forcibly discharged in Sphaerobolus – Rain splashed in bird ’ s nest fungi

26 Common taxa Cyathus – Urn-shaped, dark peridioles, funiculus Crucibulum – Cup-shaped, dull white peridioles, funiculus Nidula – Cup-shaped, pale brown peridioles, no funiculus Sphaerobolus – Cannon-ball fungus; one peridiole, forcibly discharged by evagination of endoperidium

27 From Miller and Miller, 1988

28 Rain-splash peridiole dispersal in Cyathus spp.

29 Cyathus striatus

30 Epiphragm Funicular cord Peridioles Crucibulum

31 Photo by Guillermo Pimentel

32 Sphaerobolus

33 Sphaerobolus (MykoWeb)

34 Order Phallales Stinkhorns Most species are saprotrophs Gleba dissolves into putrid mass (methylmercaptan, hydrogen sulfide = stench!) that attracts insects that disperse spores Immature basidiocarps form egg-stage Gleba formed on receptacle Basidiocarps expand rapidly at maturity

35 From Miller and Miller, 1988

36 Mutinus

37 From Miller and Miller, 1988

38 Clathrus DictyophoraPhotos by Tom Volk

39 Zhusun Mushroom/ Bamboo Fungus “ A special fungus found in bamboo groves. White in color and lamp shade-like in shape, the mushroom is both delicious and nutritious. ”


41 Gastroid and Secotioid Taxa Closely related to agarics and boletes Gastroid/secotioid taxa have evolved from ballistosporic forms: – Gastroid - Hypogeous basidiocarps – Secotioid - Epigeous basidiocarps, but pileus may fail to expand, gills may be deformed

42 Examples Russula – Secotioid taxa: Elasmomyces, Macowanites – Gastroid taxa: Martellia, Gymnomyces Suillus – Gastroid taxon: Rhizopogon

43 Rhizopogon (MykoWeb)

44 Credits This presentation has been modified from one posted on the web by Dr. Lori Carris, Washigton State University Plant Pathology Dept. from her course: Plant Path 521, Mycology.


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