Kingdom Fungi immobile sexual and asexual reproduction diverse in color, location, and shape/size Amillaria mushroom in Mi most similar in appearance to plants, but similar in DNA to animals
Fungus Structure hypha(e) – thread-like strings of nuclei come from spores can be tiny to acres large feeding system [like plant roots] secrete enzymes to digest materials hyphae
Fungus Structure hypha(e) – thread-like strings of nuclei can be partitioned with septa(e) septate / coenocytic mycelium – group of hyphae hyphae
Fungus Structure hypha(e) – thread-like strings of nuclei haustorium – tip of parasitic fungi; penetrates host tissue to feed hyphae
Fungus Structure chitin – makes up cell walls of fungi gives strength and flexibility hyphae
Discuss What is the difference between the composition of plant cell walls vs that of fungal cell walls? What two functions can hyphae serve for a fungus?
Fungus Structure fruiting body – grows above the soil; produces spores in some types, this is the mushroom pileus – cap scales – make up cap hyphae pileus scales
Fungus Structure fruiting body – grows above the soil; produces spores lamella(e) – gill(s) annulus – ring stape - stem volva – cup hyphae pileus scales lamellae stape volva annulus
Economic Importance medical applications antibiotics enzymes other medicines food applications bread wine cheese mushrooms yogurt
Harm Though fungi can be extraordinarily beneficial to us and to the ecosystem [decomposers], they can also be harmful plant damage – “rusts” toxins in food diseases
Discuss Name two beneficial uses for fungi. Name one harmful fungus for a human. Name the most economically important fungus.
Symbiosis Lichen fungus + alga most are phylum ascomycota need light, air, water, & minerals pioneer species function as biological indicator
Symbiosis Mycorrhizae fungus + plant most are phylum zygomycota hyphae grow through plant roots absorb minerals for plant, plant gives fungus organic sugars and amino acids may help with water retention
Discuss What is the symbiotic partner of a lichen? mycorrhiza? What does it mean that lichens function as “biological indicators”? What other organisms can also be “indicators”?
Phyla phyla are grouped by the type of spores they create: zygomycota ascomycota basidiomycota deuteromycota
Phyla Zygomycota sexual [zygospores] & asexual zygospore – thick-walled hearty spores which form sexually and last through harsh conditions coenocytic hyphae [no septa] most are decomposers [bread mold]
Phyla Ascomycota – the sac fungi largest & most economically important group sexual [ascospores] & asexual ascospore – spore which develops in sac-like structure called an ascus ex: yeast, lichens, morels, blue/green/red/brown molds
Phyla Basidiomycota – the club fungi most are saprobes/saphrophytes sexual [basidiospores] & asexual basidiospore – develop on gills of mushroom in club-shaped structures called basidia ex: mushrooms, puffballs, shelf-fungi [on trees], bird’s nest fungi, plant rusts
Phyla Deuteromycota – the imperfect fungi asexual reproduction only useful in making food cheese, jams, anything “fruit-flavored” for citric acid ex: Penicillium spp., ringworm, blue stuff in bleu cheese
Discuss How are fungal phyla separated? Which phylum reproduces… using zygospores? only asexually? using spores in sacs? using spores in club-shaped structures?