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Kingdom: Fungi Unit 6 Lecture 4.

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1 Kingdom: Fungi Unit 6 Lecture 4

2 Kingdom Fungi aka Kingdom Mycetae eukaryotes [domain Eukarya]
unicellular or multicellular heterotrophic saphrophytic mutualistic parasitic

3 Kingdom Fungi immobile sexual and asexual reproduction
diverse in color, location, and shape/size Amillaria mushroom in Mi most similar in appearance to plants, but similar in DNA to animals

4 Fungus Structure hypha(e) – thread-like strings of nuclei
come from spores can be tiny to acres large feeding system [like plant roots] secrete enzymes to digest materials hyphae

5 Fungus Structure hypha(e) – thread-like strings of nuclei
can be partitioned with septa(e) septate / coenocytic mycelium – group of hyphae hyphae

6 Fungus Structure hypha(e) – thread-like strings of nuclei
haustorium – tip of parasitic fungi; penetrates host tissue to feed hyphae

7 Fungus Structure chitin – makes up cell walls of fungi
gives strength and flexibility hyphae

8 Discuss What is the difference between the composition of plant cell walls vs that of fungal cell walls? What two functions can hyphae serve for a fungus?

9 Fungus Structure fruiting body – grows above the soil; produces spores
pileus scales fruiting body – grows above the soil; produces spores in some types, this is the mushroom pileus – cap scales – make up cap hyphae

10 Fungus Structure fruiting body – grows above the soil; produces spores
pileus scales lamellae fruiting body – grows above the soil; produces spores lamella(e) – gill(s) annulus – ring stape - stem volva – cup annulus stape volva hyphae

11 Economic Importance medical applications food applications antibiotics
bread enzymes wine other medicines cheese mushrooms yogurt

12 Harm Though fungi can be extraordinarily beneficial to us and to the ecosystem [decomposers], they can also be harmful plant damage – “rusts” toxins in food diseases

13 Discuss Name two beneficial uses for fungi.
Name one harmful fungus for a human. Name the most economically important fungus.

14 Symbiosis Lichen fungus + alga most are phylum ascomycota
need light, air, water, & minerals pioneer species function as biological indicator

15 Symbiosis Mycorrhizae fungus + plant most are phylum zygomycota
hyphae grow through plant roots absorb minerals for plant, plant gives fungus organic sugars and amino acids may help with water retention

16 Symbiosis wood-boring beetles
other plants – orchids cannot germinate w/o fungus

17 Discuss What is the symbiotic partner of a lichen? mycorrhiza?
What does it mean that lichens function as “biological indicators”? What other organisms can also be “indicators”?

18 Phyla phyla are grouped by the type of spores they create: zygomycota
ascomycota basidiomycota deuteromycota

19 Phyla Zygomycota sexual [zygospores] & asexual
zygospore – thick-walled hearty spores which form sexually and last through harsh conditions coenocytic hyphae [no septa] most are decomposers [bread mold]

20 Phyla Ascomycota – the sac fungi
largest & most economically important group sexual [ascospores] & asexual ascospore – spore which develops in sac-like structure called an ascus ex: yeast, lichens, morels, blue/green/red/brown molds

21 Phyla Basidiomycota – the club fungi most are saprobes/saphrophytes
sexual [basidiospores] & asexual basidiospore – develop on gills of mushroom in club-shaped structures called basidia ex: mushrooms, puffballs, shelf-fungi [on trees], bird’s nest fungi, plant rusts

22 Phyla Deuteromycota – the imperfect fungi asexual reproduction only
useful in making food cheese, jams, anything “fruit-flavored” for citric acid ex: Penicillium spp., ringworm, blue stuff in bleu cheese

23 Discuss How are fungal phyla separated? Which phylum reproduces…
using zygospores? only asexually? using spores in sacs? using spores in club-shaped structures?

24 Homework BDOL 20.1 and BDOL 20.2 worksheet

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