3Kingdom Fungi immobile sexual and asexual reproduction diverse in color, location, and shape/sizeAmillaria mushroom in Mimost similar in appearance to plants, but similar in DNA to animals
4Fungus Structure hypha(e) – thread-like strings of nuclei come from sporescan be tiny to acres largefeeding system [like plant roots]secrete enzymes to digest materialshyphae
5Fungus Structure hypha(e) – thread-like strings of nuclei can be partitioned with septa(e)septate / coenocyticmycelium – group of hyphaehyphae
6Fungus Structure hypha(e) – thread-like strings of nuclei haustorium – tip of parasitic fungi; penetrates host tissue to feedhyphae
7Fungus Structure chitin – makes up cell walls of fungi gives strength and flexibilityhyphae
8DiscussWhat is the difference between the composition of plant cell walls vs that of fungal cell walls?What two functions can hyphae serve for a fungus?
9Fungus Structure fruiting body – grows above the soil; produces spores pileusscalesfruiting body – grows above the soil; produces sporesin some types, this is the mushroompileus – capscales – make up caphyphae
10Fungus Structure fruiting body – grows above the soil; produces spores pileusscaleslamellaefruiting body – grows above the soil; produces sporeslamella(e) – gill(s)annulus – ringstape - stemvolva – cupannulusstapevolvahyphae
11Economic Importance medical applications food applications antibiotics breadenzymeswineother medicinescheesemushroomsyogurt
12HarmThough fungi can be extraordinarily beneficial to us and to the ecosystem [decomposers], they can also be harmfulplant damage – “rusts”toxins in fooddiseases
13Discuss Name two beneficial uses for fungi. Name one harmful fungus for a human.Name the most economically important fungus.
14Symbiosis Lichen fungus + alga most are phylum ascomycota need light, air, water, & mineralspioneer speciesfunction as biological indicator
15Symbiosis Mycorrhizae fungus + plant most are phylum zygomycota hyphae grow through plant rootsabsorb minerals for plant, plant gives fungus organic sugars and amino acidsmay help with water retention
17Discuss What is the symbiotic partner of a lichen? mycorrhiza? What does it mean that lichens function as “biological indicators”?What other organisms can also be “indicators”?
18Phyla phyla are grouped by the type of spores they create: zygomycota ascomycotabasidiomycotadeuteromycota
19Phyla Zygomycota sexual [zygospores] & asexual zygospore – thick-walled hearty spores which form sexually and last through harsh conditionscoenocytic hyphae [no septa]most are decomposers [bread mold]
20Phyla Ascomycota – the sac fungi largest & most economically important groupsexual [ascospores] & asexualascospore – spore which develops in sac-like structure called an ascusex: yeast, lichens, morels, blue/green/red/brown molds
21Phyla Basidiomycota – the club fungi most are saprobes/saphrophytes sexual [basidiospores] & asexualbasidiospore – develop on gills of mushroom in club-shaped structures called basidiaex: mushrooms, puffballs, shelf-fungi [on trees], bird’s nest fungi, plant rusts
22Phyla Deuteromycota – the imperfect fungi asexual reproduction only useful in making foodcheese, jams, anything “fruit-flavored” for citric acidex: Penicillium spp., ringworm, blue stuff in bleu cheese
23Discuss How are fungal phyla separated? Which phylum reproduces… using zygospores?only asexually?using spores in sacs?using spores in club-shaped structures?