Presentation on theme: "Fungus Chapter 8-2. Fungi All are eukaryotic just like protists Multicellular (only one exception -yeast)"— Presentation transcript:
Fungus Chapter 8-2
Fungi All are eukaryotic just like protists Multicellular (only one exception -yeast)
How do Fungi eat? Fungi are heterotrophs, meaning they cannot make their own food like plants. Fungi send out long, threadlike structures called hyphae which absorb minerals and water from the soil.
How do Fungi eat? Hyphae create a network of large tangles called the mycelium. The fruiting body is also made of hyphae
What are Fungi? Scientists group fungi into four(4) different groups based on how they look and how they reproduce. –Four groups of fungi: club fungi, sac fungi, zygote fungi, and imperfect fungi. Almost all fungi reproduce asexually by producing spores which are small reproductive cells with a strong, protective outer covering.
Reproduction Most reproduce asexually by spores
Kinds of Fungi Zygote Mold Sac Yeast Club Mushroom Imperfect Blue cheese
Club Fungi The familiar umbrella shaped mushroom belong to the group called club fungi The part of the mushroom that grows above ground is a structure called a basidiocarp. The basidia are the reproductive structures inside the basidiocarp that produce sexual spores.
Mushrooms (Club Fungi) –Four parts make up the basidiocarp Cap- opens to release spores Gills- under cap; hold spores Spores- make a new organism Stalk- stem-like part
Gills- grooves under the cap
Stalk- Under the Microscope
Not all are edible some are poisonous You cannot tell a poisonous mushroom from a non-poisonous mushroom in the wild
Other Club Fungi Bracket
Sac Fungi Largest group Examples: –Yeasts –Powdery mildew –Truffles – Morels
Sac Fungi The ascus is the reproductive structure where spores develop on sac fungi. Many sac fungi cause diseases in plants and animals while others are harvested by people for food.
Many yeasts are sac fungi, including the common yeast used to make bread. Yeast uses sugar (as food) to produce CO 2 and alcohol. Trapped Carbon Dioxide bubbles cause dough to rise
Yeasts –Reproduce asexually by budding –Only unicellular fungi
Dutch Elm Disease (caused by parasitic yeast)
Zygote Fungi Bread Molds, a shapeless & fuzzy are a type of zygote fungi. The hyphae of a zygote fungus grow over materials, such as bread, dissolving the material and absorbing nutrients.
Zygote Fungi Tiny stalks called zygosporangia form when the fungus undergoes sexual reproduction and release spores called zygospores. Reproduce asexually- –Zygoporangia break open and release spores Can reproduce sexually- –Two hyphae join and develop zygosporangia
Bread mold- under the microscope Hyphae Sporangia (spore cases)
Imperfect Fungi Imperfect fungi are named because scientists have not observed a sexual, or “perfect,” reproductive stage in their life cycle.
The Importance of Fungi Fungi play important roles in human food production. Products such as bread, cheese, soy sauce and cola drinks are produced using fungi Although some are harmful, some are helpful and make important medicines –Ex. Penicillium notatum makes penicillin
The Importance of Fungi Fungi are important to the environment because they decompose dead plants & animals matter and help recycle nutrients for the soil. MayOctober
Lichens Combination of a fungus and an alga Found everywhere –Grow on rocks and trees Live in a symbiotic relationship –Fungus provides shelter, water and minerals –Alga lives inside the fungus and provides food by photosynthesis
Lichens Plants and animals benefit from lichens because the fungi help break down rocks and create soil where plants can grow, creating a food source for other organisms Lichens improve conditions for other organisms