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Fungus Chapter 8-2.

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1 Fungus Chapter 8-2

2 Fungi All are eukaryotic just like protists
Multicellular (only one exception -yeast)

3 How do Fungi eat? Fungi are heterotrophs, meaning they cannot make their own food like plants. Fungi send out long, threadlike structures called hyphae which absorb minerals and water from the soil.

4 How do Fungi eat? Hyphae create a network of large tangles called the mycelium. The fruiting body is also made of hyphae

5 What are Fungi? Scientists group fungi into four(4) different groups based on how they look and how they reproduce. Four groups of fungi: club fungi, sac fungi, zygote fungi, and imperfect fungi. Almost all fungi reproduce asexually by producing spores which are small reproductive cells with a strong, protective outer covering.

6 Reproduction Most reproduce asexually by spores

7 Kinds of Fungi Zygote Mold Sac Yeast Club Mushroom
Imperfect Blue cheese

8 Club Fungi The familiar umbrella shaped mushroom belong to the group called club fungi The part of the mushroom that grows above ground is a structure called a basidiocarp. The basidia are the reproductive structures inside the basidiocarp that produce sexual spores.

9 Mushrooms (Club Fungi)
Four parts make up the basidiocarp Cap- opens to release spores Gills- under cap; hold spores Spores- make a new organism Stalk- stem-like part

10 Gills- grooves under the cap

11 Stalk- Under the Microscope

12 Not all are edible some are poisonous
You cannot tell a poisonous mushroom from a non-poisonous mushroom in the wild

13 Other Club Fungi Bracket

14 Smut

15 Sac Fungi Largest group Examples: Yeasts Powdery mildew Truffles

16 Sac Fungi The ascus is the reproductive structure where spores develop on sac fungi. Many sac fungi cause diseases in plants and animals while others are harvested by people for food.

17 Many yeasts are sac fungi, including the common yeast used to make bread.
Yeast uses sugar (as food) to produce CO2 and alcohol. Trapped Carbon Dioxide bubbles cause dough to rise

18 Yeasts Reproduce asexually by budding Only unicellular fungi

19 Dutch Elm Disease (caused by parasitic yeast)

20 Zygote Fungi Bread Molds, a shapeless & fuzzy are a type of zygote fungi. The hyphae of a zygote fungus grow over materials, such as bread, dissolving the material and absorbing nutrients.

21 Zygote Fungi Reproduce asexually- Can reproduce sexually-
Tiny stalks called zygosporangia form when the fungus undergoes sexual reproduction and release spores called zygospores. Reproduce asexually- Zygoporangia break open and release spores Can reproduce sexually- Two hyphae join and develop zygosporangia

22 Bread mold- under the microscope
Sporangia (spore cases) Hyphae

23 Imperfect Fungi Imperfect fungi are named because scientists have not observed a sexual, or “perfect,” reproductive stage in their life cycle.

24 The Importance of Fungi
Fungi play important roles in human food production. Products such as bread, cheese, soy sauce and cola drinks are produced using fungi Although some are harmful, some are helpful and make important medicines Ex. Penicillium notatum makes penicillin

25 The Importance of Fungi
Fungi are important to the environment because they decompose dead plants & animals matter and help recycle nutrients for the soil. May October

26 Lichens Combination of a fungus and an alga Found everywhere
Grow on rocks and trees Live in a symbiotic relationship Fungus provides shelter, water and minerals Alga lives inside the fungus and provides food by photosynthesis

27 Lichens Plants and animals benefit from lichens because the fungi help break down rocks and create soil where plants can grow, creating a food source for other organisms Lichens improve conditions for other organisms


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