Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

BOT3015L Fungi Presentation created by Danielle Sherdan All photos from Raven et al. Biology of Plants except when otherwise noted.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "BOT3015L Fungi Presentation created by Danielle Sherdan All photos from Raven et al. Biology of Plants except when otherwise noted."— Presentation transcript:

1 BOT3015L Fungi Presentation created by Danielle Sherdan All photos from Raven et al. Biology of Plants except when otherwise noted

2 Tree of Life Plants (embryophytes) Angiosperms Gymnosperms, seedless, and non-vascular Animals Fungi (today) Protists Endosymbiosis Molecular evidence that both animals and fungi diverged from a common ancestor, likely a colonial protist Choanoflagellate, colonial protist

3 Today Importance of fungi Kingdom Fungi Classification Characteristics Zygomycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes

4 Today Importance of fungi Kingdom Fungi Classification Characteristics Zygomycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes

5 Fungi are important Cooking and baking Beer and wine production Cheese production Antibiotics Toxic waste cleanup Antibiotic production (cyclosporin, penicillin) Medical benefits (anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory) Parasites and diseases in animals (ringworm, aflatoxins) Parasites and diseases in plants (powdery mildew, smuts, rot) Decomposition and nutrient cycling Mycorrhizal associations

6 Today Importance of fungi Kingdom Fungi Classification Characteristics Zygomycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes

7 Fungus Theme Slide BOT 3015 Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes Zygomycetes From Outlaw lecture Notice that, based on molecular data, fungi are more closely related to animals than plants

8 Zygomycete Basidiomycete Ascomycete Similar * Formation of spores within zygosporangium. * No cross walls between cells. Formation of spores in ascus. Formation of spores on basidium. Classification using sexual reproduction (more later) Modified from Outlaw lecture

9 Some important characteristics of fungi Eukaryotes Cell walls of chitin (not found in plants, found in animals) Heterotrophic absorption Secretion of digestive enzymes Active transport

10 Fungi secrete enzymes (red symbol), which break complex molecules into smaller building blocks, such as simple sugars and amino acids (yellow symbols). The simple molecules are absorbed by the fungus. MEMBRANE INSIDE OUTSIDE Absorption is the Fungal Mode of Nutrition Thanks to Robert Hebert for assistance in the preparation of this slide. Nutrients dilute relative to inside Secondary active transport Modified from Outlaw lecture

11 Some important characteristics of fungi Eukaryotes Cell walls of chitin (not found in plants, found in animals) Heterotrophic absorption Secretion of digestive enzymes Active transport Filamentous hyphae (some unicellular forms)

12 Rhizopus (zygomycete) on strawberries Filamentous hyphae Mycelium - mass of hyphae Growth occurs at tips of hyphae Some have partitions called septa May be specialized e.g. rhizoids anchor to substrate and haustoria absorb from living cells

13 Some important characteristics of fungi Eukaryotes Cell walls of chitin (not found in plants, found in animals) Heterotrophic absorption Secretion of digestive enzymes Active transport Filamentous hyphae (some unicellular forms) Spores produced sexually and asexually Sexual reproduction by zygotic meiosis

14 Characteristics of phyla of fungi Phylum Type of sexual spores Representatives Common plant diseases Zygomycota Zygospore in zygosporangium Bread mold, endomycorrhizal fungi Soft rot Ascomycota Ascospore in ascus as part of ascocarp Powdery mildews, morels, truffles Powdery mildew, chestnut blight, Dutch elm disease Basidiomycota Basidiospore in basidium as part of basidiocarp Mushrooms, stinkhorns, puffballs, shelf fungi, rusts, smuts Black stem rust of cereals, corn smut, root rot

15 Today Importance of fungi Kingdom Fungi Classification Characteristics Zygomycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes

16 Zygomycete life cycle Zygospore, distinguishing characteristic, is only diploid cell Modified from Outlaw lecture

17 Example of the asexual sporangiophore Pilobolus (zygomycete)

18 Zygospores of Rhizopus nigricans Thanks to Robert Hebert and Kim Riddle for this image. Gametangia Zygospores

19 Today Importance of fungi Kingdom Fungi Classification Characteristics Zygomycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes

20 Ascomycete life cycle Distinguishing characteristics Plasmogamy Karyogamy Conidia of Nomuraea

21 Asci lining the fruiting body of Peziza Ascospores Modified from Outlaw lecture

22 Appearance of prototypical ascomycete From Outlaw lecture

23 Xylaria sp. From Outlaw lecture

24 Common edible morel, Morchella esculenta (ascomycete)

25 World’s most expensive truffle White Alba Almost 3 pounds $112, 000 Photo from Wikipedia Truffles Black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) ascocarp (pictured) found beneath the soil surface

26 Botryosphaeria dothidea on Adina apple Thanks to Robert Hebert and Kim Riddle for this image. From Outlaw lecture

27 Today Importance of fungi Kingdom Fungi Classification Characteristics Zygomycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes

28 Basidiomycete life cycle From Outlaw lecture

29 Basidia and basidiospores Cross section of basidiocarp showing gills Coprinus (basidiomycete) with vital stain ~200µ m ~100µ m ~50µ m

30 Basidia of Coprinus pileus From Outlaw lecture

31 SEM inky cap mushroom, Coprinus cinereus (basidiomycete) Basidia at time of basidospore release Basidia and basidiospores 4 basidiospores atop a single basidium ~25µ m ~10µ m

32 Polypore example Polyporus arcularius

33 Shelf fungus example Ganoderma applanatum

34 Puffball Calostoma cinnabarina

35 Netted stinkhorn Dictyophora duplicata

36 White-egg bird’s-nest Crucibulum laeve

37 Earthstar Geastrum saccatum

38 Corn smut Ustilago maydis

39 For a local collection go to Outlaw’s collection in the lecture series

40 The yeast growth form Present in ascomycetes, zygomycetes, and basidiosmycetes Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ascomycete) Single-cell form Filamentous form Budding, a form of asexual reproduction ~25µ m ~2.5µ m


Download ppt "BOT3015L Fungi Presentation created by Danielle Sherdan All photos from Raven et al. Biology of Plants except when otherwise noted."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google