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Hymenomycetes: Jelly Fungi etc. Mycology (Bio 594, Special Topics) M. Marshall, 2013 Shippensburg University (See last slide for additional credits)

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Presentation on theme: "Hymenomycetes: Jelly Fungi etc. Mycology (Bio 594, Special Topics) M. Marshall, 2013 Shippensburg University (See last slide for additional credits)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hymenomycetes: Jelly Fungi etc. Mycology (Bio 594, Special Topics) M. Marshall, 2013 Shippensburg University (See last slide for additional credits)

2 Jelly Fungi Hymenomycetes belonging to orders Auriculariales, Cantharellales (Ceratobasidiaceae, Tulasnella) Dacrymycetales, Filobasidiales, Tremellales “ Heterobasidiomycetes ” based on presence of “ heterobasidium ” Most members have gelatinous or rubbery basidiocarps Basidia embedded in gelatinous hymenial layer

3 From Hibbett (2006). Mycologia 98:

4 Classification Ceratobasidiaceae, Tulasnella, Dacrymycetales and Auriculariales characterized by: – Septal pore imperforate or with large pores – Formation of secondary basidiospores – Mycelial monokaryotic stage

5 Classification (cont.) Tremellales characterized by: – Sacculate septal cap or no septal cap – Dimorphic life cycle—yeast-like monokaryon, mycelial dikaryon – mycoparasitism

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7 Order Auriculariales Largest order, 6 families and 30 genera Most members are saprotrophs, grow on dead wood Phragmobasidia of two types; sterigmata are hyphal like; basidiospores become septate, may germinate indirectly via conidia – Transversely septate (Auricularia) – Cruciately septate (Exidia, Phlogiotis, Pseudohydnum)

8 Auricularia

9 Wood Ear

10 From Fungi of Switzerland Vol. 2 Exidia

11 Phlogiotus helvelloides

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13 Pseudohydnum gelatinosum

14 Ceratobasidiaceae Basidiocarps greatly reduced or absent Basidia with prominent sterigmata Basidiospores germinate indirectly (by secondary spore formation) Many species associated with plants, either as parasites or mycorrhizae

15 Rhizoctonia solani Soil-borne fungus that attacks a wide range of hosts, causing root rots, cankers, & damping off Produces rapidly-growing, pale brown mycelium – No clamp connections – Hyphal branches arise at 90 º angle, constricted at point of union – May form sclerotia, monilioid cells

16 Rhizoctonia

17 Rhizoctonia Classification Binucleate and multinucleate groups Binucleate strains have Ceratobasidium teleomorphs Multinucleate strains have Thanatephorus and Waitea teleomorphs Isolates assigned to anastomosis groups (AG) by pairing with tester strains

18 Order Dacrymycetales Members of this family cause brown rot of wood “ Tuning fork ” basidia—aseptate, deeply forked, two sterigmata Basidiospores become septate and germinate directly or indirectly Basidiocarps of many species are yellow or orange

19 Common Genera Dacrymyces – Cushion-shaped basidiocarps Calocera – Narrow, tapering basidiocarps, occasionally branched Guepiniopsis – Small, stalked basidiocarps with cup-like head

20 Dacrymyces

21 Tulasnella Members are either saprotrophs or mycorrhizal Produce flattened, waxy or web- like basidiocarps Basidia have strongly inflated sterigmata that become separated by secondary septa Not a monophyletic genus based on recent analysis

22 From Fungi of Switzerland Vol. 2

23 Order Tremellales Members of this order are dimorphic, with haploid, yeast-like stage and dikaryotic, mycelial stage Basidia are cruciately septate Many species are mycoparasites that form haustorial branches that penetrate host >15 genera, inc. Tremella

24 Tremella (from BIOIMAGES)

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26 Order Filobasidiales Filobasidiella— teleomorph of Cryptococcus, an encapsulated yeast Infection initiated by inhaled basidiospores, or through open wounds 19 spp. recognized, C. neoformans and C. gattii cause cryptococcosis in animals inc. humans Photo © Xiaorong Lin

27 Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptococcosis – Pulmonary infection, can become disseminated Common in immunosuppressed individuals Common in pigeon dung Encapsulated yeast Polysaccharide capsule, phenol oxidase enzyme and ability to grow at 37C are major virulence factors

28 Cryptococcus neoformans Disease(s): Cryptococosis

29 Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptococcus neoformans Disease(s): Cryptococosis

30 Cryptococcus gattii Cryptococcus gattii widely regarded as endemic in tropical regions – Eucalyptus trees in Australia considered natural reservoirs Largest outbreak on Vancouver Island in past 8 years

31 Outbreak on Vancouver Island Alder, bitter cherry, cedar, Douglas fir and Garry Oak tree have tested positive Since 1999, numerous animals and marine mammals have been affected – Dozens of cats & dogs, 11 porpoises, 1 horse, 1 llama > 100 humans have been diagnosed, four have died – Most were immunocompetent

32 Credits This presentation has been modified from one posted on the web by Dr. Lori Carris, Washigton State University Plant Pathology Dept. from her course: Plant Path 521, Mycology.

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34 From Hibbett (2006). Mycologia 98: Agaricomycotina Gloeo -Brown rotters Tel = corticoid & hydnoid Hymeno = Molec group polyp & corticoid Corticiales = resup wood rotters Gomph = finger like Phallus-like Hysterangiales = puff balls Geastrales = earth stars Auriculariales = jelly Cantharellales = Chanterelles


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