Presentation on theme: "Bellringer Think about what you know about plants, and come up with as comprehensive a definition as possible. Name me two very different plants. What."— Presentation transcript:
Bellringer Think about what you know about plants, and come up with as comprehensive a definition as possible. Name me two very different plants. What makes them different?
Classification started in the 1700’s but there is still a lot of work to do!
Objective: To go through plants Agenda: Bellringer Notes Start Tax WS 2 while work is passed back Homework: WS due next class
Characteristics of Plants Eukaryotic Multi-cellular Non-motile Autotrophic
4 Different types of plants: Mosses: No vascular tissue No seeds No flower Ferns: Have vascular tissue No seeds No flower Gymnosperms (conifers): Have vascular tissue Have “naked” seeds in cones No flower Angiosperms(flowering plants): Have vascular tissue Develop seeds in fruits from flowers
Adaptations of plants Vascular tissue: tubes in plants through which water and sugars move Xylem: carries water Phloem: carries sugar Conserving water: Waxy outer covering called a cuticle Stomata: holes in the cuticle through which CO 2 can enter and O 2 can leave
Seeds A seed is an embryo surrounded by a food supply and protective coat They have the following adaptations Dispersal: seeds have mechanisms to be moved to new locations Nourishment: contain a food supply Dormancy: seeds may lie dormant for years waiting for proper condition
Flowers Reproductive structures Draw and label the parts of a flower
Pollination 1. Pollen is produced on the anther (a pollen grain has 2 sperm) 2. The pollen lands on the stigma 3. The pollen tube grows down to the ovule 4. One sperm nucleus fertilizes the egg and becomes the embryo 5. The other sperm nucleus fertilizes two extra nuclei in the ovule, developing into the endosperm Endosperm: the nutrients which surround and feed the embryo
Fruit A fruit is a mature ovary that contains one or more seeds (based on how many ovules the flower had) It often provides more nourishment for the seed
Bellringer “There is fungus amongus” How many ways can you think of that plants and fungi differ? What is similar about them?
Characteristics of Fungi Eukaryotic Mostly multi-cellular NOT similar to the Plant Kingdom Heterotrophic Body made of long filamentous cells called hyphae Has cell walls made of chitin (same as exoskeleton of insects)
Structural Info Hyphae grow into a tangled mass called a mycelium When you see a mushroom, you are seeing the mycelium Fungi is “eating” whatever it is growing on Hyphae secrete enzymes that digest food outside the body, then absorb it The above ground portion is only the reproductive structure
Mushrooms The reproductive structure Have gills under the mushroom cap Gills have reproductive cells called basidia Basidia produce spores which birth new mushrooms
CAP STALK GILLS Mushroom structure
Reproduction in Fungi Each spore becomes a new individual The spores can withstand a wide temperature/condition range, and will start growing when they land somewhere moist with food present Air currents generally carry them
Mutualisms with fungus Fungus form two important mutualisms with other organisms in nature: 1. Mycorrhizae: fungus grows around the roots of plants, and provides water & minerals while the plant gives sugar from photosynthesis
Cont’d 2. Lichens: a fungus growing with an algae (or cyanobacteria) Fungus absorbs water, algae makes sugar able to grow in deserts and the arctic Considered “environmental indicators” because they are sensitive to the pollutants in the atmosphere. When they die, pollution is likely present