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The Fungi Kingdom Mycology -the study of fungi fungus - singular fungi- plural 1) fungi are eukaryotic they have a nuclei & mitochondria 2) they are heterotrophs.

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Presentation on theme: "The Fungi Kingdom Mycology -the study of fungi fungus - singular fungi- plural 1) fungi are eukaryotic they have a nuclei & mitochondria 2) they are heterotrophs."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Fungi Kingdom Mycology -the study of fungi fungus - singular fungi- plural 1) fungi are eukaryotic they have a nuclei & mitochondria 2) they are heterotrophs they depend on other organisms for food 3) they are multicellular 4) they cannot move on their own 4 Main Characteristics of Fungi

2 The Fungi Kingdom 1) fungi lack chlorophyll 2) fungi are not photosynthetic cannot produce their own food 3) they never reproduce by seeds 4) most fungi have cell walls made of chitin… Except molds 4 Reasons Fungi Are Different From Plants cellulose Plant cell walls are made of what? molds have cell walls made of cellulose…like plants most are saprophytes some are parasites Saprophyte- feeds on dead/decaying organisms

3 FUNGAL ORGANELLES Contain many of the organelles found in other cells Nucleus Mitochondria Ribosomes DNA Endoplasmic Reticulum Vacuoles Cell Wall Cell Membrane Cytoplasm DO NOT contain CHLOROPLASTS!!!!!!!!!

4 The Fungi Kingdom Parts of fungi: Hyphae - network of thin thread-like structures that form the “body” of a fungus hyphae grow and branch until they cover and digest the food source (upon which the fungi is growing) hyphae contain cytoplasm hypha - singular hyphae - plural

5 The Fungi Kingdom Parts of fungi: Mycelium -a mass of hyphae mycelia - plural The mycelium is usually hidden in the soil, in wood, or another food source A mycelium may fill a single ant, or cover many acres

6 The Fungi Kingdom the structure of the fungi that you can see, is the part that carries out reproduction most fungi reproduce by using spores Reproduction is classified according to: fungi spores are microscopic EX: Mushrooms & puffballs release large clouds of spores. Each cloud contains millions of spores Fungi Reproduction: 1) the way they form the spores 2) the shape of the structure in which spores are made

7 The Fungi Kingdom single hypha Mass of hyphae (mycelium) Germ tube (Growing Spore) (initial hypha)

8 1- Sporangium Fungi Rhizopus Stachybatrus Bread mold Water mold Cheese mold: Blue, Roquefort, Brie

9 The Fungi Kingdom Sporangium fungi reproduces by spores in the sporangia Sporangia- structures found on the tips of hyphae that make spores EX: Bread Mold Bread mold produces spores in sporangia that stick up above the bread 4 Main Types of Fungi: 1.Sporangium Fungi/Mold

10 1- Sporangium Fungi The hyphae have SPORANGIA at the ends Sporangium Hyphae Mycelium

11 Sporangium with spores inside Sporangium releasing Spores The hyphae have SPORANGIA at the ends (round structures that produce spores).

12 1- Sporangium Fungi Hyphae Sporangium

13 The Fungi Kingdom 2. Club fungi - have a club-shaped part which produces the spores 4 Types of Fungi Example: MUSHROOMS Corn Smut Puffball Shelf fungus Coral Fungus

14 2- Club Fungi b) Produce spores from club shaped sacs called basidia. Cap StipeGills

15 The Fungi Kingdom What are we looking at when we see a… fungus-among-us? The ‘living’ body of the fungus is a mycelium The part of the fungus that we see is only the “fruit” of the organism

16 2- Club Fungi

17 Basidium Spores Cap Stipe Gills

18 3. Sac Fungi - produce spores in sac-like structures EX: yeasts, cup fungi, powdery mildews, & lichens

19 3- Sac Fungi Tuber magnatum truffle: A $1,000-$2,000 per lb. Mitrula paludosa Cup fungi Cramp ball Example: YEAST Dead Man’s Fingers Some molds: Penicillium

20 3- Sac Fungi b) Produce spores inside a small sac called an ASCUS. An Ascus with spores inside Many Asci

21 3- Sac Fungi Yeast cells producing asci. Asci

22 RESPIRATION AEROBIC ANAEROBIC Occurs with Oxygen Occurs without Oxygen

23 2 types of Cellular Respiration Aerobic Respiration Requires Oxygen Water and CO 2 are waste products Food + Oxygen CO 2 + Water + ATP

24 2 Types of Cellular Respiration Anaerobic Respiration (Fermentation) Does not require Oxygen (anaerobic) Yeast cells used to make bread Creates CO 2 (makes bread rise), alcohol (for beer, wine, champagne)

25 Lichens - a fungus and an organism with chlorophyll that live together Picture of lichen taken through an electron microscope. Lichens on ground Algal cellsFungal cells

26 The Fungi Kingdom

27 Lichens 2) Have a mutualistic relationship (they help each other). a)Fungus provides protection and a place for the algae to live. b)Algae makes food for both to live on. c)Pioneers – ultimately leading to a forest community – SUCCESSION LICHENS!

28 Symbiotic Relationships? A close relationship between two organisms where at least one benefits. –MUTUALISTIC (+ +), –COMMENSALISM (+ 0) –PARASITIC (+ -) Examples: –Nemo and the Sea Anemone –Fungi that help protect plant roots from drought –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuKjBIBBAL8 ANT KILLERhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuKjBIBBAL8

29 What type of relationship am I? Mutualism (++), Commensalism (+0), Parasitism(-+)

30 The Fungi Kingdom 4 Types of Fungi 4) Imperfect – sporangium/mold, sac, and club fungi that can only reproduce asexually cause most fungal diseases in humans EX: ringworm, athletes foot, thrush

31 The Fungi Kingdom Fungi Reproduction of 4 types of fungi: 1) Mold – reproduce asexually & sexually 2) Sac fungi – reproduce asexually & sexually

32 The Fungi Kingdom Fungi Reproduction of 4 types of fungi cont’d: 3) Club fungi – reproduce asexually & sexually 4) Imperfect – can only reproduce asexually

33 How Do Fungi Get Around Not Being Tall Enough? Fungi have a major problem: Many fungi do not grow tall enough to clear the "boundary layer" of still air next to the ground so they… 1) Shoot their spores 2) Use animals, water or wind for dispersal Once spores are caught by something they can be carried long distances

34 The Fungi Kingdom

35 Wind and water can carry pieces of hyphae to new places. If enough moisture and food is present, the spores/hyphae can grow into new fungi Fungi can also reproduce from pieces of hyphae. Fungi Reproduction Cont’d:

36 The Fungi Kingdom 1. Define the term mycology. 2. List the 4 main types of fungi and give an example of each. 3. List the 4 main characteristics of fungi. 4. Explain 2 reasons why fungi are different from plants. 5. Define hyphae. Explain what it does and where it is located. 6. Define mycelium. Explain what it does and where it’s located. 7. Which of the 4 types of fungi is bread mold?

37 The Fungi Kingdom 8. Define lichen. List 2 places that you can find them. 9. Which part of the fungi carries out reproduction? 10. List the two ways fungi reproduction is classified? 11. Which type of fungi causes most fungal diseases in humans? 12. List 3 types of human diseases caused by fungus. 13. What is the number one problem fungi have when they are reproducing? 14. List two ways a fungi can release spores


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