Presentation on theme: "Edible morels from Phylum Basidiomycota"— Presentation transcript:
1 Edible morels from Phylum Basidiomycota Chapter 21- FungiEdible morels from Phylum Basidiomycota
2 21-1Kingdom Fungieukaryoticmost = sexual/ asexual rep.classified by rep. structuresmostly multicellular; some unicellular (yeasts: most primitive form of fungi)cell walls = CHITINexternal, absorptive heterotrophs-release enzymes and break down food externally, then absorb nutrients
3 Structures:hyphae- subunits of multicellular fungi, cross walls or no cross wallsMycelium- mass of hyphae; nutrient absorption; contain fruiting body (rep. structure ex: mushroom)
4 21-1 4 major groups: * “common molds” * sac fungi * club fungi Sporangia- produce spores; found at the tips of specialized hyphae called sporangiophoresSpores- dispersed by wind or animals; germinate in favorable conditions4 major groups:* “common molds”* sac fungi* club fungi* imperfect fungiFairy Ring
5 I. Common molds- Zygomycota 21-2I. Common molds- ZygomycotaA. Life cycle includes zygospores-spore that contains zygotesBlack Bread Mold- Rhizopus stoloniferB. Rhizoids-root-like hyphae; grow downFertilizationC. Stolons-hyphae that runs along surface; will form sporangiophores with sporangiaMeiosisSexual reproductionAsexual Reproduction
6 II. Sac-fungi-Ascomycota 21-2II. Sac-fungi-AscomycotaA. ascus- sexual rep.structure that contains ascosporesB. conidia- asexual sporesC. yeasts- unicellular; oldest and most primitive fungi; sexual (ascospores) or budding (asexual)
7 Figure 21–6 These cup fungi are members of the phylumAscomycota. In cup fungi, asci lie on the interior surface of the cup. At maturity, the spore-filled asci burst, releasing the spores into the air.
8 21-2 III. Club-fungi-Basidiomycota A. Basidium- club-shaped rep. structure; found in the gills that grow on the underside of capB. Most complex life cycle of all fungiC. Ex: Puffball, Stinkhorn, Shelf Fungi, Bird’s Nest Fungus; Jelly Fungi; Mushroom
10 21-2 IV. Deuteromycota- Imperfect Fungi A. No known mode of sexual rep.B. Most closely resemble ascomycetes (sac-fungi)C. Best known:Penicillium; fruit mold/ antibioticsPenicillium Conidiophores - Orange PeelPenicillium notatum (Produces Penicillin)
11 B. Decomposers- recycle nutrients in ecosystems V. Ecology of Fungi21-3A. Saprobes (organisms that obtain food from decaying organic matter) and parasitesB. Decomposers- recycle nutrients in ecosystemsC. Parasites1. plants-corn smut, fruit mildews; wheat rust; 15-50% crops lost to fungi from temperate to tropical zones2. Animals- athlete’s foot/ ringworm (deuteromycete); yeast infections/ thrush (yeast-ascomycete);
12 D.Symbiotic Relationships 21-31. Lichens- mutualism between fungi/ algae or fungi/ cyanobacteriai. fungi= provides minerals/ SA for water absorption; protection for algae; algae or cyanobacteria = make sugar via photosynthesisii. drought/ cold resistant = pioneer speciesiii. Indicators of air quality- sensitive to air pollution
13 21-32. Mycorrizhae-means ”fungal root”; mutualism b/t fungi/ plant rootsi. 80% of plant species have mycorrizhaeii. Fungi- increase surface area for water/ mineral absorption; plant roots= offer fungi sugars from photosynthesis.Basidiomycete w/ angiospermBasidiomycete with a conifer.Mycorrizhae
14 21-1 The cell walls of fungi are made up of A. chitin. B. hyphae. C. mycelium.D. cellulose.
15 21-1 The part of the mushroom that appears above ground is the A. mycelium, or main body of the fungus.B. photosynthetic organ of the fungus.C. reproductive structure of the fungus.D. structure used to capture prey.
16 21-1 The hyphae that make up multicellular fungi are A. long chains that are several cells thick.B. thin filaments that are sometimes divided into cells.C. the fruiting bodies used in reproduction.D. the structures that grow above ground.
17 21-1 Most fungi reproduce A. sexually. B. asexually. C. both sexually and asexually.D. neither sexually or asexually.
18 21-1 Sporangia are found at the tips of specialized hyphae called A. gametangia.B. mycelia.C. sporangiophores.D. sporophytes.
19 21-2 Fungi grow best in an environment that is A. cool. B. moist. C. dry.D. salty.
20 21-2 Yeasts are A. zygomycetes. B. ascomycetes. C. basidiomycetes. D. deuteromycetes.
21 21-2 Penicillium is a(an) A. ascomycete. B. basidiomycete. C. deuteromycete.D. zygomycete.
22 21-2Sac fungi have a characteristic reproductive structure called a(an)A. ascus.B. basidium.C. budding capsule.D. sporophyte.
23 21-2The basidiospores of club fungi are produced on thin structures calledA. fruiting bodies.B. buttons.C. gills.D. stalks.
24 21-3 Which of the following is NOT true of fungi? A. Some of them perform valuable service as decomposers.B. Some of them have a beneficial association with plants.C. Some of them can make their own food.D. Some of them cause serious diseases of plants, animals, and humans.
25 21-3Ringworm is caused by aA.worm.B. fungus.C. plant.D. protist.
26 21-3 Research on mycorrhizae shows that plants A. are not dependent on other organisms.B. are closely related to fungi.C. may depend on other organisms.D.are seriously damaged by fungi.
27 21-3 In a mutualistic relationship A. both partners benefit. B. one partner benefits.C. neither partner benefits.D. neither partners is affected by the other.
28 21-3 Lichens are symbiotic associations that might be formed between A. a fungus and an animal.B. a plant and a bacterium.C. a cyanobacterium and a plant.D. a fungus and an alga.