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1 Kingdom Fungi The following PPT was slightly modified from the original work found on the following site:


3 Kingdom Fungi – There are 5 Major Phyla (pg 365)
Phylum Zygomycota = the Bread Molds Rhizopus – black bread mold Oomycota = the Water Molds Water mold, potato blight, mildew Phylum Ascomycota = the Sac Fungi Yeast, morels, truffles Phylum Basidiomycota = the Club Fungi Mushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi, rusts, smuts, toadstools Phylum Deuteromycota = the Fungi Imperfecti

4 Fungal Characteristics
       1)Cell wall made of Chitin     2)Heterotrophs and major Decomposers      3)Body is made of Long filaments of hyphae which form a mycelium         4)Reproduce sexually and asexually Asexually by spores Sexually by mating of hyphae filaments

5 Zygomycota (Rhizopus) the Common Molds
-are primarily decomposers -asexual spores may be produced in sporangia -sexual reproduction occurs between + and – strains forming a 2n zygote; a zygospore develops and may lie dormant for a long period of time; meiosis occurs just before germination -only the zygote is diploid; all hyphae and asexual spores are haploid

6 Bread Mold – a Zygomycete Fungi

7 Zygomycota – common molds
The fungal mass of hyphae, known as the MYCELIUM penetrates the bread and produces the fruiting bodies on top of the stalks Mycelia = a mass of hyphae or filaments

8 Rhizoids = root-like hyphae
The rhizoids meet underground and mating occurs between hyphae of different molds (SEXUAL REPRODUCTION)

9 Zygomycota (Rhizopus)


11 Water Molds -- Oomycota
The water molds are better known as the MILDEWS. Fish tank fuzz is an example. Protist-like mold because share common characteristics with plant-like protists, such as the cell wall

12 Things to Know about Oomycete Fungi
Water molds or mildews Cause diseases such as potato blight Cell walls made of cellulose (like plant) Hyphae have multiple nuclei! Because the cell walls do not fully close off. Spore swims away like a flagellate, which is why it is protist like (think of Euglena)

13 Ascomycota – Cup Fungi

14 Note the cup shapes and orange peel colour
Cup Fungi – Ascomycete Fungi Note the cup shapes and orange peel colour

15 Yeast is an Ascomycete Fungus

16 Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape
Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape. They vary from the size of a walnut to that of a man's fist. Since the times of the Greeks and Romans these fungi have been used in Europe as delicacies, as aphrodisiacs, and as medicines. They are among the most expensive of the world's natural foods, often commanding as much as $250 to $450 per pound. Truffles are harvested in Europe with the aid of female pigs or truffle dogs, which are able to detect the strong smell of mature truffles underneath the surface of the ground. The female pig becomes excited when she sniffs a chemical that is similar to the male swine sex attractant. The use of dogs to find truffles is also and option.

17 Morels are Ascomycete Fungi

18 Mushrooms – “Club Like” Fungi or Basidiomycete Fungi

19 Basidiomycete or Club Fungi

20 Bracket Fungi – Basidiomycete Fungi

21 An example of Fungi You know

22 Basidiomycete Fungi that all produce Basiospores
Bracket Fungi Puff Balls Basidiomycete Fungi that all produce Basiospores Jelly Fungi Mushrooms

23 Other Basidiomycetes Rusts and Smuts
Rust infecting wheat leaves Whitrot Smut digesting old wood Rust infecting a Leaf

24 Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)
-Regarded as imperfect because they exhibit no sexual stage has been observed in their life cycle -Members are not closely related and are not necessarily similar in structure or appearance; do not share a common ancestry, polyphyletic = coming from many ancestors – hmm weird 

25 Deuteromycota – the Fungi Imperfecti
Resemble Ascomycetes, but their reproductive cycle has never been observed Different from Ascomycetes because there is a definite lack of sexual reproduction, which is why they are called Imperfect Fungi Penicillium fungi Up Close

26 Lichens Lichens are mutualistic symbiotic organisms. They have a fungal portion and an algal portion. There are three lichen growth forms which are predominant in nature:

27 Fruticose Crustose Foliose

28 Soredia are the asexual reproductive part of lichens, containing both symbionts. Rhizines may be present to anchor the lichen. Notice the distinctive algal layer and the fungal layer present in the above illustration.

29 Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizae means “fungus-root”; mutualistic relationship between plant and fungi The plant photosynthesizes while the fungus more efficiently takes up nutrients and water from the rhizosphere than the roots would alone. Plant benefits include: Improved nutrient/water uptake Improved root growth Improved plant growth and yield Improved disease resistance Reduced transplant shock Reduced drought stress

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