Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Fungi The following PPT was slightly modified from the original work found on the following site: www.worldofteaching.com/powerpoints/biology/fungi.ppt."— Presentation transcript:
1Kingdom FungiThe following PPT was slightly modified from the original work found on the following site:
3Kingdom Fungi – There are 5 Major Phyla (pg 365) Phylum Zygomycota = the Bread MoldsRhizopus – black bread moldOomycota = the Water MoldsWater mold, potato blight, mildewPhylum Ascomycota = the Sac FungiYeast, morels, trufflesPhylum Basidiomycota = the Club FungiMushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi, rusts, smuts, toadstoolsPhylum Deuteromycota = the Fungi Imperfecti
4Fungal Characteristics 1)Cell wall made of Chitin 2)Heterotrophs and major Decomposers 3)Body is made of Long filaments of hyphae which form a mycelium 4)Reproduce sexually and asexuallyAsexually by sporesSexually by mating of hyphae filaments
5Zygomycota (Rhizopus) the Common Molds -are primarily decomposers-asexual spores may be produced in sporangia-sexual reproduction occurs between + and – strains forming a 2n zygote; a zygospore develops and may lie dormant for a long period of time; meiosis occurs just before germination-only the zygote is diploid; all hyphae and asexual spores are haploid
11Water Molds -- Oomycota The water molds are better known as the MILDEWS. Fish tank fuzz is an example.Protist-like mold because share common characteristics with plant-like protists, such as the cell wall
12Things to Know about Oomycete Fungi Water molds or mildewsCause diseases such as potato blightCell walls made of cellulose (like plant)Hyphae have multiple nuclei! Because the cell walls do not fully close off.Spore swims away like a flagellate, which is why it is protist like (think of Euglena)
16Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape. They vary from the size of a walnut to that of a man's fist. Since the times of the Greeks and Romans these fungi have been used in Europe as delicacies, as aphrodisiacs, and as medicines. They are among the most expensive of the world's natural foods, often commanding as much as $250 to $450 per pound.Truffles are harvested in Europe with the aid of female pigs or truffle dogs, which are able to detect the strong smell of mature truffles underneath the surface of the ground. The female pig becomes excited when she sniffs a chemical that is similar to the male swine sex attractant. The use of dogs to find truffles is also and option.
22Basidiomycete Fungi that all produce Basiospores Bracket FungiPuff BallsBasidiomycete Fungi that all produce BasiosporesJelly FungiMushrooms
23Other Basidiomycetes Rusts and Smuts Rust infecting wheat leavesWhitrot Smut digesting old woodRust infecting a Leaf
24Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi) -Regarded as imperfect because they exhibit no sexual stage has been observed in their life cycle-Members are not closely related and are not necessarily similar in structure or appearance; do not share a common ancestry, polyphyletic = coming from many ancestors – hmm weird
25Deuteromycota – the Fungi Imperfecti Resemble Ascomycetes, but their reproductive cycle has never been observedDifferent from Ascomycetes because there is a definite lack of sexual reproduction, which is why they are called Imperfect FungiPenicillium fungiUp Close
26LichensLichens are mutualistic symbiotic organisms. They have a fungal portion and an algal portion. There are three lichen growth forms which are predominant in nature:
28Soredia are the asexual reproductive part of lichens, containing both symbionts. Rhizines may be present to anchor the lichen. Notice the distinctive algal layer and the fungal layer present in the above illustration.
29MycorrhizaeMycorrhizae means “fungus-root”; mutualistic relationship between plant and fungiThe plant photosynthesizes while the fungus more efficiently takes up nutrients and water from the rhizosphere than the roots would alone.Plant benefits include:Improved nutrient/water uptakeImproved root growthImproved plant growth and yieldImproved disease resistanceReduced transplant shockReduced drought stress