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A mushroom goes into a bar

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1 A mushroom goes into a bar
A mushroom goes into a bar. The bartender looks at him and says, “get out of here, we don’t serve your kind.” The mushroom says to the bartender, “Why not, I’m a FUN GUY!”


3 Deuteromycota (not pictured)
We will study four phyla of fungi classified by their structure and method of reproduction Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Deuteromycota (not pictured) Slime molds

4 Characteristics of all fungi
Heterotrophs Eukaryotic Multicellular (except yeast) Cell wall made of chitin External digestion of food Main body is haploid Fungi can be Decomposers (saprobes) Parasites Carnivores Mutualistic (beneficial)

5 Did you know that each year the Mycological Society of San Francisco hosts one or two mushroom shows (traditionally called 'fungus fairs'). At the show you can see hundreds of species of fungi on display along with exhibits on ecology, mycophagy, toxicology, and cultivation. There is a fungus fair!

6 What is there to like about Fungi?
A LOT! Decomposers Symbiosis Food


8 Edible fungi Giant puff ball Wild mushrooms
To prevent mushroom poisoning, mushroom gatherers need to be very familiar with the mushrooms they intend to collect, including knowledge of the toxic species that look similar to these edible species. Mushroom poisoning (toxins) initially cause severe abdominal cramping, vomiting, and watery diarrhea, and then lead to liver and kidney failure. Therapy is aimed at decreasing the amount of toxin in the body.

9 Structure of fungi Filaments = hyphae All hyphae together = mycellium
Reproductive structure = fruiting body

10 Reproduction in fungi Asexual = hyphae breaking off or production of spores Sexual = + and – mating types meet. Each forms a gametangium. The haploid nuclei fuse and form a diploid zygote. Meiosis then forms haploid nuclei.

11 Haploid nuclei formed in gametangia
+ and – mating types come together Nuclei fuse to form diploid zygote

12 Phylum Zygomycota Common molds Includes black bread mold

13 Zygospores = spores formed in sexual reproduction SEXUAL Sporangium produces spores Sporangiophore holds up sporangium Stolon = stem like hyphae ASEXUAL Rhizoid = root like hyphae

14 Phylum Ascomycota Sac fungi Multicellular (morels, truffles)
Unicellular (yeast) World’s largest truffle

15 Sexual reproduction – formation of ascospores in ascus (cup shaped fruiting body)

16 Asexual reproduction Yeast  budding
Formation of conidia (asexual spores) on conidiophores

17 Phylum Basidiomycota = Club fungi
Mushroom Shelf fungus Puff ball Jelly fungus Plant parasite known as rust

18 Sexual reproduction + and – hyphae fuse Fruiting body (n + n)
Basidia (n + n) Fertilization Zygote (2n)

19 Phylum deuteromycota = imperfect fungi (no sexual reproduction observed)

20 Antibiotic penicillin
Penicillium reproduces with conidia so may have evolved from ascomycetes

21 Ecology of fungi Decomposers – recycle nutrients Parasites
Human diseases Athletes foot and ringworm (deuteromycete) Thrush and vaginal yeast infections (Candida) Plant diseases Corn smut Mildew Wheat rust Animal diseases

22 Mutualistic relationships
Lichens = algae + fungi Fungus provides “home” Alga provides food

23 Mutualistic relationship
Mycorrhizae = relationship with plant roots Fungal hyphae increase surface area of root Plant gets more water and minerals Fungus gets food from plant (from photosynthesis)

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