4Fungal Characteristics 1)Cell wall made of Chitin 2)Heterotrophs and major Decomposers 3)Body is made of Long filaments of hyphae which form a mycelium 4)Reproduce sexually and asexuallyAsexually by sporesSexually by mating of hyphae filamentsClick for ----> Movie summary
9Note the cup shapes and orange peel colour Cup Fungi – Ascomycete FungiNote the cup shapes and orange peel colour
10Kingdom Fungi – you must know 5 Major Phyla Phylum Zygomycota = the Bread MoldsRhizopus – black bread moldOomycota = the Water MoldsWater mold, potato blight, mildewPhylum Ascomycota = the Sac FungiYeast, morels, trufflesPhylum Basidiomycota = the Club FungiMushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi, rusts, smuts, toadstoolsPhylum Deuteromycota = the Fungi Imperfecti
11Zygomycota (Rhizopus) the Common Molds -are primarily decomposers-asexual spores may be produced in sporangia-sexual reproduction occurs between + and – strains forming a 2n zygote; a zygospore develops and may lie dormant for a long period of time; meiosis occurs just before germination-only the zygote is diploid; all hyphae and asexual spores are haploid
12Zygomycota – common molds The fungal mass of hyphae, known as the MYCELIUM penetrates the bread and produces the fruiting bodies on top of the stalksMycelia = a mass of hyphae or filaments
13Rhizoids = root-like hyphae The zhizoids meet underground and mating occurs between hyphae of different molds (SEXUAL REPRODUCTION)
20Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape. They vary from the size of a walnut to that of a man's fist. Since the times of the Greeks and Romans these fungi have been used in Europe as delicacies, as aphrodisiacs, and as medicines. They are among the most expensive of the world's natural foods, often commanding as much as $250 to $450 per pound.Truffles are harvested in Europe with the aid of female pigs or truffle dogs, which are able to detect the strong smell of mature truffles underneath the surface of the ground. The female pig becomes excited when she sniffs a chemical that is similar to the male swine sex attractant. The use of dogs to find truffles is also and option.
28Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi) -Regarded as imperfect because they exhibit no sexual stage has been observed in their life cycle-Members are not closely related and are not necessarily similar in structure or appearance; do not share a common ancestry, polyphyletic = coming from many ancestors – hmm weird
29Deuteromycota – the Fungi Imperfecti Resemble Ascomycetes, but their reproductive cycle has never been observedDifferent from Ascomycetes because there is a definite lack of sexual reproduction, which is why they are called Imperfect FungiPenicillium fungiUp Close
31Water Molds -- Oomycota The water molds are better known as the MILDEWS. Fish tank fuzz is an example.Protist-like mold because share common characteristics with plant-like protists, such as the cell wall
33Things to Know about Oomycete Fungi Water molds or mildewsCause diseases such as potato blightCell walls made of cellulose (like plant)Hyphae have multiple nuclei! Because the cell walls do not fully close off.Spore swims away like a flagellate, which is why it is protist like (think of Euglena)
34Irish Potato Famine of 19th Century Devastated potato crops, causing devastating starvation in Ireland
36Phylum Ex’s Characteristics Asexual Sexual OomycotaMildewSpud blightCellulose cell walls, 2N hyphaeFlagellated oospores from sporangiaGametes fuse in gametangia creating oosporesZygomycotaRhizopus a dung fungusChitin cell wallsCoenocytic = hyphae lack crosswallsUnflagel. spores drop from sporangiaGametangia fuse to create zygosporeAscomycotaYeast, morels, trufflesConidia on conidophoresHyphae + & - fuse to create ascospores in ascus
37Mushrooms Puffballs, rusts, smuts Cross walls in hyphae BasidiomycotaMushrooms Puffballs, rusts, smutsCross walls in hyphaeAsexual by way of Conidophores which produce conidiosporesSexual when hyphae fuse in BASIDIA to producebasidiosporesFungi ImperfectiDeuteromycotaPenicillium,Athlete’s Foot fungus,Tomato BlightSimilarToBasidio andZygomyAsexual by conidia which produce conidophoresSexual reproNot known
38coenocytic having multiple nuclei embedded in cytoplasm without cross walls; nonseptateCross Walls of HyphaeCoenocytic hyphae where the nucleis of each cell is embedded in the cytoplasm without a cell wallEg. Zygomycota, OomycotaHyphae with cross wallsEg. Basidiomycota, Ascomycota
39LichensLichens are mutualistic/*symbiotic* organisms. They have a fungus and an algal or cyanobacterial portion. There are three lichen growth forms which are predominant in nature: Crustose, Fruticose, and Foliose.
41MycorrhizaeMycorrhizae means “fungus-root”; mutualistic relationship between plant and fungiThe plant photosynthesizes while the fungus more efficiently takes up nutrients and water from the rhizosphere than the roots would alone.Plant benefits include:Improved nutrient/water uptakeImproved root growthImproved plant growth and yieldImproved disease resistanceReduced transplant shockReduced drought stress
42Soredia are the asexual reproductive part of lichens, containing both symbionts. Rhizines may be present to anchor the lichen. Notice the distinctive algal layer and the fungal layer present in the above illustration.