Presentation on theme: "Eukaryotic organisms, which means they have membrane bound organelles. They have cell walls made of chitin. Mycologists study FUNGI! Kingdom Fungi."— Presentation transcript:
Eukaryotic organisms, which means they have membrane bound organelles. They have cell walls made of chitin. Mycologists study FUNGI! Kingdom Fungi Earth star
An example of Fungi You know
Kingdom Fungi Lack chlorophyll so they feed themselves by being ___________, (which live off dead organisms and recycle nutrients back into the environment) or _____________, (which live off living organisms). decomposers parasites
Mushrooms – “Club Like” Fungi or Basidiomycete Fungi
Bracket Fungi – Basidiomycete Fungi
Bread Mold – a Zygomycete Fungi
Cup Fungi – Ascomycete Fungi Note the cup shapes and orange peel color
Kingdom Fungi Fungi are heterotrophs that utilize a special process called _________________ ______________ to obtain nutrients. ( food is digested outside the fungal body with enzymes and then absorbed ) ExtracellularDigestion
Kingdom Fungi – you must know 5 Major Phyla 1.Phylum Zygomycota = the Bread Molds Rhizopus – black bread mold 2.Oomycota = the Water Molds Water mold, potato blight, mildew 3.Phylum Ascomycota = the Sac Fungi Yeast, morels, truffles 4.Phylum Basidiomycota = the Club Fungi Mushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi, rusts, smuts, toadstools 5.Phylum Deuteromycota = the Fungi Imperfecti
The mycelium or body of a fungus is usually composed of filaments called a hyphae. It is seldom seen since it grows inside the host. Kingdom Fungi
-are primarily decomposers -asexual spores may be produced in sporangia -sexual reproduction occurs between + and – strains forming a 2n zygote; a zygospore develops and may lie dormant for a long period of time; meiosis occurs just before germination -only the zygote is diploid; all hyphae and asexual spores are haploid Zygomycota (Rhizopus) the Common Molds
Zygomycota – common molds The fungal mass of hyphae, known as the MYCELIUM penetrates the bread and produces the fruiting bodies on top of the stalks Mycelia = a mass of hyphae or filaments
Rhizoids = root-like hyphae The zhizoids meet underground and mating occurs between hyphae of different molds (SEXUAL REPRODUCTION)
Water Molds -- Oomycota The water molds are better known as the MILDEWS. Fish tank fuzz is an example. Protist-like mold because share common characteristics with plant-like protists, such as the cell wall
LifeCycle of Oomycota
Things to Know about Oomycete Fungi 1.Water molds or mildews 2.Cause diseases such as potato blight 3.Cell walls made of cellulose (like plant) 4.Hyphae have multiple nuclei! Because the cell walls do not fully close off. 5.Spore swims away like a flagellate, which is why it is protist like (think of Euglena)
Irish Potato Famine of 19 th Century Devastated potato crops, causing devastating starvation in Ireland
Yeast is an Ascomycete Fungus
Bracket Fungi Puff Balls Mushrooms Jelly Fungi Basidiomycete Fungi that all produce Basiospores
Other Basidiomycetes Rusts and Smuts Rust infecting wheat leaves Rust infecting a Leaf Whitrot Smut digesting old wood
-Regarded as imperfect because they exhibit no sexual stage has been observed in their life cycle -Members are not closely related and are not necessarily similar in structure or appearance; do not share a common ancestry, polyphyletic = coming from many ancestors – hmm weird Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)
Deuteromycota – the Fungi Imperfecti Resemble Ascomycetes, but their reproductive cycle has never been observed Different from Ascomycetes because there is a definite lack of sexual reproduction, which is why they are called Imperfect Fungi Penicillium fungi Up Close
Lichens are mutualistic symbiotic organisms. They have a fungus and a cyanobacterial portion. There are three lichen growth forms which are predominant in nature: _____________________________ Lichens
Crustose Foliose Fruticose
Lichens are often the first organisms to enter a barren environment. The bacteria contribute energy (photosynthesis) and the fungus contribute anchorage, minerals, and a home. LICHENS
Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizae means “fungus-root”; mutualistic relationship between plant and fungi The plant photosynthesizes while the fungus more efficiently takes up nutrients and water from the rhizosphere than the roots would alone. Plant benefits include: Improved nutrient/water uptake Improved root growth Improved plant growth and yield Improved disease resistance Reduced transplant shock Reduced drought stress
Harmful OR Helpful
RINGWORM CORN SMUT
Yeast are used for baking!
Morels and truffles used as food. Morels Truffles
Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape. They vary from the size of a walnut to that of a man's fist. Since the times of the Greeks and Romans these fungi have been used in Europe as delicacies, as aphrodisiacs, and as medicines. They are among the most expensive of the world's natural foods, often commanding as much as $250 to $450 per pound. Truffles are harvested in Europe with the aid of female pigs or truffle dogs, which are able to detect the strong smell of mature truffles underneath the surface of the ground. The female pig becomes excited when she sniffs a chemical that is similar to the male swine sex attractant. The use of dogs to find truffles is also and option.
…and then there are the decomposers!
Shelf Fungi … decomposers…
Penicillium used for what???
Treatments for Fungal Infections Antifungal creams/powders Keep area clean and dry (fungus grows best in moist, dark places) Carefully clean the shower or bath using bleach. Hot wash socks, towels, bathmats at a temperature of at least 60ºC. Regularly wash floors where you walk bare foot.