5 Kingdom FungiLack chlorophyll so they feed themselves by being ___________,(which live off dead organisms and recycle nutrients back into the environment) or _____________, (which live off living organisms).decomposersparasites
6 Mushrooms – “Club Like” Fungi or Basidiomycete Fungi
9 Note the cup shapes and orange peel color Cup Fungi – Ascomycete FungiNote the cup shapes and orange peel color
10 Kingdom FungiFungi are heterotrophs that utilize a special process called_________________ ______________to obtain nutrients.(food is digested outside the fungal body with enzymes and then absorbed)ExtracellularDigestion
11 Kingdom Fungi – you must know 5 Major Phyla Phylum Zygomycota = the Bread MoldsRhizopus – black bread moldOomycota = the Water MoldsWater mold, potato blight, mildewPhylum Ascomycota = the Sac FungiYeast, morels, trufflesPhylum Basidiomycota = the Club FungiMushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi, rusts, smuts, toadstoolsPhylum Deuteromycota = the Fungi Imperfecti
12 Kingdom FungiThe mycelium or body of a fungus is usually composed of filaments called a hyphae. It is seldom seen since it grows inside the host.mycelium
14 Zygomycota (Rhizopus) the Common Molds -are primarily decomposers-asexual spores may be produced in sporangia-sexual reproduction occurs between + and – strains forming a 2n zygote; a zygospore develops and may lie dormant for a long period of time; meiosis occurs just before germination-only the zygote is diploid; all hyphae and asexual spores are haploid
15 Zygomycota – common molds The fungal mass of hyphae, known as the MYCELIUM penetrates the bread and produces the fruiting bodies on top of the stalksMycelia = a mass of hyphae or filaments
16 Rhizoids = root-like hyphae The zhizoids meet underground and mating occurs between hyphae of different molds (SEXUAL REPRODUCTION)
17 Water Molds -- Oomycota The water molds are better known as the MILDEWS. Fish tank fuzz is an example.Protist-like mold because share common characteristics with plant-like protists, such as the cell wall
19 Things to Know about Oomycete Fungi Water molds or mildewsCause diseases such as potato blightCell walls made of cellulose (like plant)Hyphae have multiple nuclei! Because the cell walls do not fully close off.Spore swims away like a flagellate, which is why it is protist like (think of Euglena)
20 Irish Potato Famine of 19th Century Devastated potato crops, causing devastating starvation in Ireland
23 Basidiomycete Fungi that all produce Basiospores Bracket FungiPuff BallsBasidiomycete Fungi that all produce BasiosporesJelly FungiMushrooms
24 Other Basidiomycetes Rusts and Smuts Rust infecting wheat leavesWhitrot Smut digesting old woodRust infecting a Leaf
25 Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi) -Regarded as imperfect because they exhibit no sexual stage has been observed in their life cycle-Members are not closely related and are not necessarily similar in structure or appearance; do not share a common ancestry, polyphyletic = coming from many ancestors – hmm weird
26 Deuteromycota – the Fungi Imperfecti Resemble Ascomycetes, but their reproductive cycle has never been observedDifferent from Ascomycetes because there is a definite lack of sexual reproduction, which is why they are called Imperfect FungiPenicillium fungiUp Close
28 LichensLichens are mutualistic symbiotic organisms. They have a fungus and a cyanobacterial portion. There are three lichen growth forms which are predominant in nature: _____________________________
30 LICHENSLichens are often the first organisms to enter a barren environment.The bacteria contribute energy (photosynthesis) and the fungus contribute anchorage, minerals, and a home.
31 MycorrhizaeMycorrhizae means “fungus-root”; mutualistic relationship between plant and fungiThe plant photosynthesizes while the fungus more efficiently takes up nutrients and water from the rhizosphere than the roots would alone.Plant benefits include:Improved nutrient/water uptakeImproved root growthImproved plant growth and yieldImproved disease resistanceReduced transplant shockReduced drought stress
37 MorelsTrufflesMorels and truffles used as food.
38 Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape. They vary from the size of a walnut to that of a man's fist. Since the times of the Greeks and Romans these fungi have been used in Europe as delicacies, as aphrodisiacs, and as medicines. They are among the most expensive of the world's natural foods, often commanding as much as $250 to $450 per pound.Truffles are harvested in Europe with the aid of female pigs or truffle dogs, which are able to detect the strong smell of mature truffles underneath the surface of the ground. The female pig becomes excited when she sniffs a chemical that is similar to the male swine sex attractant. The use of dogs to find truffles is also and option.
42 Treatments for Fungal Infections athlete's footAntifungal creams/powdersKeep area clean and dry (fungus grows best in moist, dark places)Carefully clean the shower or bath using bleach.Hot wash socks, towels, bathmats at a temperature of at least 60ºC.Regularly wash floors where you walk bare foot.ringwormthrush