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True Fungi break down dead organic material provide numerous drugs foods like mushrooms Plant and animal diseases.

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Presentation on theme: "True Fungi break down dead organic material provide numerous drugs foods like mushrooms Plant and animal diseases."— Presentation transcript:

1 True Fungi break down dead organic material provide numerous drugs foods like mushrooms Plant and animal diseases

2 Characteristics of fungi Fungi exist primarily as filamentous threads, the hyphae, forming a mass, a mycelium. Normally never see the mycelium, only the fruiting bodies. Cell walls contain chitin.* Reproduction is due to fusion of hyphae* Fungi are heterotrophic by absorption

3 Groups of fungi Chytridiomycota (chytrids) Zygomycota (bread molds) Ascomycota (yeasts and sac fungi) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Deuteromycota (asexual forms of ascomycetes and basidiomycetes)

4 Generalised Life cycle of fungi Haploid mycelia of different mating types Fusion of hyphae* Dikaryotic mycelium gives fruiting body Nuclear fusion Diploid stage Meiosis to give spores Not in chytrids* Zygomycetes - V. small fruiting body Ascomycetes - small fruiting body Basidiomycetes - long-lived hyphae then a large fruiting body

5 Comparison of different groups

6 Chytridiomycota (chytrids) The oldest fossil fungi so far known and may form a ‘missing link’ with protists. Flagellated zoospores fuse, their nuclei fuse then immediate meiosis to give spores

7 Zygomycota (bread molds) Important decomposers Dominant haploid phase with dikaryon restricted to formation of zygosporangium asexual spores are produced

8 Zygosporangium develops Spores germinate to give mycelium Coenocytic mycelia of 2 mating types Hyphae grow to each other Zygosporangium formed Sporangium forms by mitosis Spores produced by mitosis The life cycle of a zygomycete Gametangia develop Zygospores Spores produced by meiosis

9 Ascomycota (yeasts and sac fungi) Sexual spores (ascospores) are produced in a specialized sac-like structure called an ascus on the surface of an ascocarp. Reproduced asexually by conidia Decomposers that include economically important foods such as truffles and Morels and pests such as powdery mildews and ergots. Yeasts used in baking and brewing.

10 Life cycle of an ascomycete Haploid septate hyphae Anther- idium (‘male’) Asco- gonium ‘female’ Nuclear fusion then Ascospores in asci by meiosis Dikaryotic hyphae

11 Sporing structures (ascocarps) A vegetative layer of ‘sterile’ dikaryotic hyphae (2 nuclei) forms the body of the ascocarp with a layer of asci on the surface (produce spores)

12 Sporing structures

13 Tissues within the ascocarp Sterile body of ascocarp formed from dikaryotic hyphae Layer of asci Cup fungi Morels Flask fungi

14 Basidiomycota (club fungi) Septate hyphae Produce long-lived dikaryons (mycelia where the cells have 2 nuclei) Produce sporing structures, the basidia, on basidiocarps. Wood rotting fungi Rusts Smuts Mushrooms Puffballs Life cycle a bit like ascomycetes, but individual spores produced

15 Yeasts Unicellular forms of ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. Some reproduce sexually some don’t. Baking Brewing Human pathogens e.g. Candida

16 Deuteromycota (asexual forms of ascomycetes and basidiomycetes) No sexual stages known and propagate solely by spores called conidia on structures called conidiaphores. Includes commercially important species such as Penicillium (gives penicillin from fungal fermentations) Conidia Mycelium Conidiophore

17 Lichens Lichens are unusual creatures. A lichen is a combination of two organisms which live together intimately. Most of the lichen is composed of fungal filaments, but living among the filaments are algal cells, usually from a green alga or a Cyanobacterium.


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