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Fungal Characteristics        1)Cell wall made of Chitin     2)Heterotrophs and major Decomposers      3)Body is made of Long filaments of hyphae.

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Presentation on theme: "Fungal Characteristics        1)Cell wall made of Chitin     2)Heterotrophs and major Decomposers      3)Body is made of Long filaments of hyphae."— Presentation transcript:




4 Fungal Characteristics
       1)Cell wall made of Chitin     2)Heterotrophs and major Decomposers      3)Body is made of Long filaments of hyphae which form a mycelium         4)Reproduce sexually and asexually Asexually by spores Sexually by mating of hyphae filaments

5 An example of Fungi You know

6 Mushrooms – “Club Like” Fungi or Basidiomycete Fungi

7 Bracket Fungi – Basidiomycete Fungi

8 Bread Mold – a Zygomycete Fungi

9 Note the cup shapes and orange peel colour
Cup Fungi – Ascomycete Fungi Note the cup shapes and orange peel colour

10 Kingdom Fungi – you must know 5 Major Phyla
Phylum Zygomycota = the Bread Molds Rhizopus – black bread mold Oomycota = the Water Molds Water mold, potato blight, mildew Phylum Ascomycota = the Sac Fungi Yeast, morels, truffles Phylum Basidiomycota = the Club Fungi Mushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi, rusts, smuts, toadstools Phylum Deuteromycota = the Fungi Imperfecti

11 Zygomycota (Rhizopus) the Common Molds
-are primarily decomposers -asexual spores may be produced in sporangia -sexual reproduction occurs between + and – strains forming a 2n zygote; a zygospore develops and may lie dormant for a long period of time; meiosis occurs just before germination -only the zygote is diploid; all hyphae and asexual spores are haploid

12 Zygomycota – common molds
The fungal mass of hyphae, known as the MYCELIUM penetrates the bread and produces the fruiting bodies on top of the stalks Mycelia = a mass of hyphae or filaments

13 Rhizoids = root-like hyphae
The zhizoids meet underground and mating occurs between hyphae of different molds (SEXUAL REPRODUCTION)

14 Zygomycota (Rhizopus)


16 Lifecycle of a Zygomycete Fungi – Asexual then Sexual

17 Ascomycota – Cup Fungi Life Cycle

18 Yeast is an Ascomycete Fungus

19 Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape
Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape. They vary from the size of a walnut to that of a man's fist. Since the times of the Greeks and Romans these fungi have been used in Europe as delicacies, as aphrodisiacs, and as medicines. They are among the most expensive of the world's natural foods, often commanding as much as $250 to $450 per pound. Truffles are harvested in Europe with the aid of female pigs or truffle dogs, which are able to detect the strong smell of mature truffles underneath the surface of the ground. The female pig becomes excited when she sniffs a chemical that is similar to the male swine sex attractant. The use of dogs to find truffles is also and option.

20 Morels are Ascomycete Fungi

21 Basidiomycete or Club Fungi

22 Life Cycle of Basidiomycete Fungi

23 Basidiomycete Fungi that all produce Basiospores
Bracket Fungi Puff Balls Basidiomycete Fungi that all produce Basiospores Jelly Fungi Mushrooms

24 Other Basidiomycetes Rusts and Smuts
Rust infecting wheat leaves Whitrot Smut digesting old wood Rust infecting a Leaf

25 Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)
-Regarded as imperfect because they exhibit no sexual stage has been observed in their life cycle -Members are not closely related and are not necessarily similar in structure or appearance; do not share a common ancestry, polyphyletic = coming from many ancestors – hmm weird 

26 Deuteromycota – the Fungi Imperfecti
Resemble Ascomycetes, but their reproductive cycle has never been observed Different from Ascomycetes because there is a definite lack of sexual reproduction, which is why they are called Imperfect Fungi Penicillium fungi Up Close

27 Water Molds -- Oomycota
The water molds are better known as the MILDEWS. Fish tank fuzz is an example. Protist-like mold because share common characteristics with plant-like protists, such as the cell wall

28 LifeCycle of Oomycota

29 Things to Know about Oomycete Fungi
Water molds or mildews Cause diseases such as potato blight Cell walls made of cellulose (like plant) Hyphae have multiple nuclei! Because the cell walls do not fully close off. Spore swims away like a flagellate, which is why it is protist like (think of Euglena)

30 Irish Potato Famine of 19th Century
Devastated potato crops, causing devastating starvation in Ireland 


32 Phylum Ex’s Characteristics Asexual Sexual
Oomycota Mildew Spud blight Cellulose cell walls, 2N hyphae Flagellated oospores from sporangia Gametes fuse in gametangia creating oospores Zygomycota Rhizopus a dung fungus Chitin cell walls Coenocytic = hyphae lack crosswalls Unflagel. spores drop from sporangia Gametangia fuse to create zygospore Ascomycota Yeast, morels, truffles Conidia on conidophores Hyphae + & - fuse to create ascospores in ascus

33 Mushrooms Puffballs, rusts, smuts Cross walls in hyphae
Basidiomycota Mushrooms Puffballs, rusts, smuts Cross walls in hyphae Asexual by way of Conidophores which produce conidiospores Sexual when hyphae fuse in BASIDIA to produce basidiospores Fungi Imperfecti Deuteromycota Penicillium, Athlete’s Foot fungus, Tomato Blight Similar To Basidio and Zygomy Asexual by conidia which produce conidophores Sexual repro Not known

34                                    coenocytic    having multiple nuclei embedded in cytoplasm without cross walls; nonseptate Cross Walls of Hyphae Coenocytic hyphae where the nucleis of each cell is embedded in the cytoplasm without a cell wall Eg. Zygomycota, Oomycota Hyphae with cross walls Eg. Basidiomycota, Ascomycota

35 Lichens Lichens are mutualistic symbiotic organisms. They have an ____________ fungus and a _________ or cyanobacterial portion. There are three lichen growth forms which are predominant in nature: _____________________ _____________________________

36 Fruticose Crustose Foliose

37 Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizae means “fungus-root”; mutualistic relationship between plant and fungi The plant photosynthesizes while the fungus more efficiently takes up nutrients and water from the rhizosphere than the roots would alone. Plant benefits include: Improved nutrient/water uptake Improved root growth Improved plant growth and yield Improved disease resistance Reduced transplant shock Reduced drought stress

38 Soredia are the asexual reproductive part of lichens, containing both symbionts. Rhizines may be present to anchor the lichen. Notice the distinctive algal layer and the fungal layer present in the above illustration.

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