Presentation on theme: "Fungal Characteristics 1)Cell wall made of Chitin 2)Heterotrophs and major Decomposers 3)Body is made of Long filaments of hyphae which form a mycelium."— Presentation transcript:
Fungal Characteristics 1)Cell wall made of Chitin 2)Heterotrophs and major Decomposers 3)Body is made of Long filaments of hyphae which form a mycelium 4)Reproduce sexually and asexually Asexually by spores Sexually by mating of hyphae filaments
Cup Fungi – Ascomycete Fungi Note the cup shapes and orange peel colour
Kingdom Fungi – you must know 5 Major Phyla 1.Phylum Zygomycota = the Bread Molds Rhizopus – black bread mold 2.Oomycota = the Water Molds Water mold, potato blight, mildew 3.Phylum Ascomycota = the Sac Fungi Yeast, morels, truffles 4.Phylum Basidiomycota = the Club Fungi Mushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi, rusts, smuts, toadstools 5.Phylum Deuteromycota = the Fungi Imperfecti
-are primarily decomposers -asexual spores may be produced in sporangia -sexual reproduction occurs between + and – strains forming a 2n zygote; a zygospore develops and may lie dormant for a long period of time; meiosis occurs just before germination -only the zygote is diploid; all hyphae and asexual spores are haploid Zygomycota (Rhizopus) the Common Molds
Zygomycota – common molds The fungal mass of hyphae, known as the MYCELIUM penetrates the bread and produces the fruiting bodies on top of the stalks Mycelia = a mass of hyphae or filaments
Rhizoids = root-like hyphae The zhizoids meet underground and mating occurs between hyphae of different molds (SEXUAL REPRODUCTION)
Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape. They vary from the size of a walnut to that of a man's fist. Since the times of the Greeks and Romans these fungi have been used in Europe as delicacies, as aphrodisiacs, and as medicines. They are among the most expensive of the world's natural foods, often commanding as much as $250 to $450 per pound. Truffles are harvested in Europe with the aid of female pigs or truffle dogs, which are able to detect the strong smell of mature truffles underneath the surface of the ground. The female pig becomes excited when she sniffs a chemical that is similar to the male swine sex attractant. The use of dogs to find truffles is also and option.
Bracket Fungi Puff Balls Mushrooms Jelly Fungi Basidiomycete Fungi that all produce Basiospores
Other Basidiomycetes Rusts and Smuts Rust infecting wheat leaves Rust infecting a Leaf Whitrot Smut digesting old wood
-Regarded as imperfect because they exhibit no sexual stage has been observed in their life cycle -Members are not closely related and are not necessarily similar in structure or appearance; do not share a common ancestry, polyphyletic = coming from many ancestors – hmm weird Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)
Deuteromycota – the Fungi Imperfecti Resemble Ascomycetes, but their reproductive cycle has never been observed Different from Ascomycetes because there is a definite lack of sexual reproduction, which is why they are called Imperfect Fungi Penicillium fungi Up Close
Water Molds -- Oomycota The water molds are better known as the MILDEWS. Fish tank fuzz is an example. Protist-like mold because share common characteristics with plant-like protists, such as the cell wall
Things to Know about Oomycete Fungi 1.Water molds or mildews 2.Cause diseases such as potato blight 3.Cell walls made of cellulose (like plant) 4.Hyphae have multiple nuclei! Because the cell walls do not fully close off. 5.Spore swims away like a flagellate, which is why it is protist like (think of Euglena)
Irish Potato Famine of 19 th Century Devastated potato crops, causing devastating starvation in Ireland
PhylumEx’sCharacterist ics AsexualSexual Oomycota Mildew Spud blight Cellulose cell walls, 2N hyphae Flagellated oospores from sporangia Gametes fuse in gametangia creating oospores Zygomycota Rhizopus a dung fungus Chitin cell walls Coenocytic = hyphae lack crosswalls Unflagel. spores drop from sporangia Gametangia fuse to create zygospore Ascomycota Yeast, morels, truffles Conidia on conidophores Hyphae + & - fuse to create ascospores in ascus
Basidiomycota Mushroo ms Puffballs, rusts, smuts Cross walls in hyphae Asexual by way of Conidophores which produce conidiospores Sexual when hyphae fuse in BASIDIA to produce basidiospores Fungi Imperfecti Deuteromycota Penicilliu m, Athlete’s Foot fungus, Tomato Blight Similar To Basidio and Zygomy Asexual by conidia which produce conidophores Sexual repro Not known
Cross Walls of Hyphae coenocytic having multiple nuclei embedded in cytoplasm without cross walls; nonseptate coenocytic having multiple nuclei embedded in cytoplasm without cross walls; nonseptate Coenocytic hyphae where the nucleis of each cell is embedded in the cytoplasm without a cell wall Eg. Zygomycota, Oomycota Hyphae with cross walls Eg. Basidiomycota, Ascomycota
Lichens are mutualistic symbiotic organisms. They have an ____________ fungus and a _________ or cyanobacterial portion. There are three lichen growth forms which are predominant in nature: _____________________ _____________________________ Lichens
Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizae means “fungus-root”; mutualistic relationship between plant and fungi The plant photosynthesizes while the fungus more efficiently takes up nutrients and water from the rhizosphere than the roots would alone. Plant benefits include: Improved nutrient/water uptake Improved root growth Improved plant growth and yield Improved disease resistance Reduced transplant shock Reduced drought stress
Soredia are the asexual reproductive part of lichens, containing both symbionts. Rhizines may be present to anchor the lichen. Notice the distinctive algal layer and the fungal layer present in the above illustration.
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