4Fungal Characteristics 1) Fungi can be food sources or ingredientsand go grow almost anywhere!2) Scientists are not sure how fungi are RELATED toother organisms, but all fungi except yeast havemany cells3) Cell wall made of chitin 4) Heterotrophs – decomposers (MOST aresaprophytes) or parasites 5) Body is made of long filaments of hyphae whichform a mycelium and produce enzymes for digestion 6) Reproduce sexually and asexually*Asexually by spores*Sexually by mating of hyphae filaments from two genetically different fungi
5Kingdom Fungi Phylum Zygomycota = the Bread Molds/zygospore fungi Rhizopus – black bread mold – produce spores in round cases called sporangiaPhylum Oomycota = the Water MoldsWater mold, potato blight, mildewPhylum Ascomycota = the Sac/Cup FungiYeast, morels, truffles – produce spores in small, saclike structures called an ascus; yeasts reproduce by budding4. Phylum Basidiomycota = the Club FungiMushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi, rusts, smuts, toadstools – produce spores in club-shaped structure called a basidium5. Phylum Deuteromycota = the Imperfect Fungi, e.g penicillin ~ never been observed reproducing
6Zygomycota (Rhizopus) the Common Molds -are primarily decomposers-asexual spores may be produced in sporangia-sexual reproduction may occur between different strains-only the zygote is diploid; all hyphae and asexual spores are haploid
7Zygomycota – common molds The fungal mass of hyphae, known as the MYCELIUM penetrates the bread and produces the fruiting bodies on top of the stalksMycelia = a mass of hyphae or filaments
9Water Molds -- Oomycota The water molds are better known as the MILDEWS. Fish tank fuzz is an example.Protist-like mold because share common characteristics with plant-like protists, such as the cell wall
10Things to Know about Oomycete Fungi Water molds or mildewsCause diseases such as potato blightCell walls made of cellulose (like plant)Hyphae have multiple nuclei! Because the cell walls do not fully close off.Spore swims away like a flagellate, which is why it is protist like (think of Euglena)
11Irish Potato Famine of 19th Century Devastated potato crops, causing devastating starvation in Ireland Estimates of deaths in the famine years range from 290,000 to 1,500,000 with the true figure probably lying somewhere around 1,000,000, or 12% of the population.
15Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape. They vary from the size of a walnut to that of a man's fist. Since the times of the Greeks and Romans these fungi have been used in Europe as delicacies, as aphrodisiacs, and as medicines. They are among the most expensive of the world's natural foods, often commanding as much as $250 to $450 per pound.Truffles are harvested in Europe with the aid of female pigs or truffle dogs, which are able to detect the strong smell of mature truffles underneath the surface of the ground. The female pig becomes excited when she sniffs a chemical that is similar to the male swine sex attractant. The use of dogs to find truffles is also and option.
23Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi) -Regarded as imperfect because they exhibit no sexual stage has been observed in their life cycle-Members are not closely related and are not necessarily similar in structure or appearance; do not share a common ancestry,
24Deuteromycota – the Fungi Imperfecti Resemble Ascomycetes, but their reproductive cycle has never been observedDifferent from Ascomycetes because there is a definite lack of sexual reproduction, which is why they are called Imperfect FungiPenicillium fungiUp Close
25LichensLichens are mutualistic symbiotic organisms. They are composed of a fungus and either a green alga or a cyanobacterium*Important food source*Help rocks weather, or break down*Indicator species ~ monitor pollution
27MycorrhizaeMycorrhizae means “fungus-root”; mutualistic relationship between plant and fungi - may have allowed plants to move from water to land about 500 million years ago!The plant photosynthesizes while the fungus more efficiently takes up nutrients and water from the rhizosphere than the roots would alone.Plant benefits include:Improved nutrient/water uptakeImproved root growthImproved plant growth and yieldImproved disease resistanceReduced transplant shockReduced drought stress
28Importance of FungiCultivated mushrooms are an important food crop; yeast is used in baking industryFungi can cause disease in plants and animals, e.g., Dutch elm disease, apple scabFungi can cause disease in humans, e.g., ringworm and athlete’s footProduce antibiotics, e.g., penicillinDecomposers ~ recycle organic matter