2 What is a Fungus? Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs Decomposers known as saprophytesCell walls made up of chitinSome are parasites – Ex. Athlete’s Foot, RingwormSome are symbionts – Ex. LichenFungi do not ingest food, they release enzymes and absorb nutrients
3 Structure and Function of Fungi All fungi are multicellular (except yeasts, which are unicellular)Composed of tiny filaments called hyphae. Each hyphae is only one cell thick.Many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass called a mycelium. Mycelium absorbs nutrients for fungiWhat you see above ground is the fruiting body, or reproductive structure of fungi. Fruiting body develops from mycelium underground.Why is the fruiting body above ground?Why is the mycelium underground?
4 The Structure of a Mushroom Fruiting bodyHyphae“Gills” would be located under here – where spores can be foundMyceliumThis is a typical Club fungi
5 Reproduction and Spreading of Fungi Most fungi reproduce both sexually and asexuallyAsexually – hyphae break off and grow on their own or scatter sporesSome fungi lure animals with scent to help them disperse their spores over distancesFragmentation, spores, conjugation
6 Classification of Fungi Classified according to structures and method of reproductionFour phyla:Zygomycota – Common MoldsAscomycota – Sac FungiBasidiomycota – Club FungiDeuteromycota – Imperfect Fungi
7 Phylum Zygomycota – Common Molds - Zygomycetes TerrestrialHyphae lack cross walls – they look like one big cellNucleiCell wallCytoplasmCross wallHyphae With Cross WallsHyphae Without Cross Walls
8 Phylum Zygomycota – Common Molds - Zygomycetes Example: Black bread mold, Rhizopus stoloniferBlack bread mold has root-like hyphae that penetrates the surface of bread – called rhizoids
9 Phylum Ascomycota – Sac Fungi Largest phylum – 30,000 speciesNuclei separated by cross wallsNamed for ascus – reproductive structure containing sporesExamples: Yeast (unicellular), cup fungiNucleiCell wallCytoplasmCross wallHyphae With Cross WallsHyphae Without Cross Walls
10 Examples of Phylum Ascomycota YeastAleuria aurantiaCookeina colensoi
11 Phylum Basidiomycota – Club Fungi Gets name from specialized reproduction structure resembling a club, called basidium – found on the underside of mushroom cap in the gillsOne mushroom may produce 1 billion sporesSome are edible, some are toxicExamples: Mushrooms, toadstoolsMost elaborate life cycle of all the fungi
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