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The Kingdom Fungi.

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Presentation on theme: "The Kingdom Fungi."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Kingdom Fungi

2 What is a Fungus? Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs
Decomposers known as saprophytes Cell walls made up of chitin Some are parasites – Ex. Athlete’s Foot, Ringworm Some are symbionts – Ex. Lichen Fungi do not ingest food, they release enzymes and absorb nutrients

3 Structure and Function of Fungi
All fungi are multicellular (except yeasts, which are unicellular) Composed of tiny filaments called hyphae. Each hyphae is only one cell thick. Many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass called a mycelium. Mycelium absorbs nutrients for fungi What you see above ground is the fruiting body, or reproductive structure of fungi. Fruiting body develops from mycelium underground. Why is the fruiting body above ground? Why is the mycelium underground?

4 The Structure of a Mushroom
Fruiting body Hyphae “Gills” would be located under here – where spores can be found Mycelium This is a typical Club fungi

5 Reproduction and Spreading of Fungi
Most fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually Asexually – hyphae break off and grow on their own or scatter spores Some fungi lure animals with scent to help them disperse their spores over distances Fragmentation, spores, conjugation

6 Classification of Fungi
Classified according to structures and method of reproduction Four phyla: Zygomycota – Common Molds Ascomycota – Sac Fungi Basidiomycota – Club Fungi Deuteromycota – Imperfect Fungi

7 Phylum Zygomycota – Common Molds - Zygomycetes
Terrestrial Hyphae lack cross walls – they look like one big cell Nuclei Cell wall Cytoplasm Cross wall Hyphae With Cross Walls Hyphae Without Cross Walls

8 Phylum Zygomycota – Common Molds - Zygomycetes
Example: Black bread mold, Rhizopus stolonifer Black bread mold has root-like hyphae that penetrates the surface of bread – called rhizoids

9 Phylum Ascomycota – Sac Fungi
Largest phylum – 30,000 species Nuclei separated by cross walls Named for ascus – reproductive structure containing spores Examples: Yeast (unicellular), cup fungi Nuclei Cell wall Cytoplasm Cross wall Hyphae With Cross Walls Hyphae Without Cross Walls

10 Examples of Phylum Ascomycota
Yeast Aleuria aurantia Cookeina colensoi

11 Phylum Basidiomycota – Club Fungi
Gets name from specialized reproduction structure resembling a club, called basidium – found on the underside of mushroom cap in the gills One mushroom may produce 1 billion spores Some are edible, some are toxic Examples: Mushrooms, toadstools Most elaborate life cycle of all the fungi

12 Examples of Phylum Basidiomycota
Orange Jelly Pigskin Poison Puffball Fly Agaric Bird’s Nest Fungus Star Stinkhorn Shelf Fungus

13 Examples of Phylum Basidiomycota
Laetiporus sulphureus: The Chicken of the Woods

14 Phylum Deuteromycota – Imperfect Fungi
Varied phylum Not much known about fungi placed in this phylum Example: Penicillium – antibiotics Do not appear to have sexual reproduction

15 Examples of Phylum Deuteromycota
Penicillium notatum Ringworm Athlete’s Foot

16 are divided into the phyla
Fungi are divided into the phyla Ascomycota Zygomycota Basidiomycota Deuteromycota includes includes includes includes Common molds Sac fungi Club fungi Imperfect fungi

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