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The Kingdom Fungi. What is a Fungus? Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs Decomposers known as saprophytes Cell walls made up of chitin Some are parasites.

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Presentation on theme: "The Kingdom Fungi. What is a Fungus? Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs Decomposers known as saprophytes Cell walls made up of chitin Some are parasites."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Kingdom Fungi

2 What is a Fungus? Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs Decomposers known as saprophytes Cell walls made up of chitin Some are parasites – Ex. Athlete’s Foot, Ringworm Some are symbionts – Ex. Lichen Fungi do not ingest food, they release enzymes and absorb nutrients

3 Structure and Function of Fungi All fungi are multicellular (except yeasts, which are unicellular) Composed of tiny filaments called hyphae. Each hyphae is only one cell thick. Many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass called a mycelium. Mycelium absorbs nutrients for fungi What you see above ground is the fruiting body, or reproductive structure of fungi. Fruiting body develops from mycelium underground. –Why is the fruiting body above ground? –Why is the mycelium underground?

4 The Structure of a Mushroom Mycelium Fruiting body Hyphae This is a typical Club fungi “Gills” would be located under here – where spores can be found

5 Reproduction and Spreading of Fungi Most fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually Asexually – hyphae break off and grow on their own or scatter spores Some fungi lure animals with scent to help them disperse their spores over distances Fragmentation, spores, conjugation

6 Classification of Fungi Classified according to structures and method of reproduction Four phyla: –Zygomycota – Common Molds –Ascomycota – Sac Fungi –Basidiomycota – Club Fungi –Deuteromycota – Imperfect Fungi

7 Phylum Zygomycota – Common Molds - Zygomycetes Terrestrial Hyphae lack cross walls – they look like one big cell Hyphae Without Cross Walls Nuclei Cell wall Nuclei Cytoplasm Cross wall Cell wall Cytoplasm Hyphae With Cross Walls

8 Phylum Zygomycota – Common Molds - Zygomycetes Example: Black bread mold, Rhizopus stolonifer Black bread mold has root-like hyphae that penetrates the surface of bread – called rhizoids

9 Phylum Ascomycota – Sac Fungi Largest phylum – 30,000 species Nuclei separated by cross walls Named for ascus – reproductive structure containing spores Examples: Yeast (unicellular), cup fungi Hyphae Without Cross Walls Nuclei Cell wall Nuclei Cytoplasm Cross wall Cell wall Cytoplasm Hyphae With Cross Walls

10 Examples of Phylum Ascomycota Yeast Cookeina colensoi Aleuria aurantia

11 Phylum Basidiomycota – Club Fungi Gets name from specialized reproduction structure resembling a club, called basidium – found on the underside of mushroom cap in the gills One mushroom may produce 1 billion spores Some are edible, some are toxic Examples: Mushrooms, toadstools Most elaborate life cycle of all the fungi

12 Examples of Phylum Basidiomycota Orange JellyPigskin Poison PuffballFly Agaric Star Stinkhorn Shelf Fungus Bird’s Nest Fungus

13 Examples of Phylum Basidiomycota Laetiporus sulphureus: The Chicken of the Woods

14 Phylum Deuteromycota – Imperfect Fungi Varied phylum Not much known about fungi placed in this phylum Example: Penicillium – antibiotics Do not appear to have sexual reproduction

15 Examples of Phylum Deuteromycota Penicillium notatumRingworm Athlete’s Foot

16 are divided into the phyla includes Fungi Common molds Imperfect fungi Sac fungi Club fungi AscomycotaZygomycotaBasidiomycota Deuteromycota


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