2 Shared Characteristics Distinctive fungal featuresFungi are heterotrophs.Fungi have several cell types.Some fungi have a dikaryon stage.Two haploid cells coexisting in a single cell (dikaryon) before fusion to form nucleus (diploid)Fungi have cell walls that include chitin.Fungi undergo nuclear mitosis.In mitosis, nuclear membrane does not breakdown, mitosis occurs in the nucleus
3 The Body of a FungusFungi exist mainly in the form of slender filaments (hyphae).long chains of cells joined end-to-end divided by cross-walls (septa)rarely form complete barriercytoplasm freely streams in hyphaemycelium - mass of connected hyphaegrows through and penetrates substrate
4 The Body of a FungusFungi cell walls are formed of polysaccharides and chitin.not cellulose like those of plantsMitosis is unique.nuclear envelope does not break down and re-formspindle apparatus formed withinspindle plaques take place of centrioles
5 How Fungi ReproduceDiffer from most animals and plants in that each compartment of hypha can contain one, two or more nucleimonokaryotic - each compartment has a single nucleusdikaryotic - two distinct nuclei within each hyphae compartment
6 How Fungi ReproduceFungi are capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction.Fungi reproduce sexually after two hyphae of opposite mating type fuse.in some fungi fusion two haploid cells immediately results in diploid cell (2n)basidiomycetes and ascomycetes have dikaryotic stage (1n + 1n) before parental nuclei fuse to form diploid nucleus
7 Hyphal growth from spore germinatingsporemyceliumMycelia have a huge surface area
12 Zygomycotaincludes common bread moldsproduces temporarily dormant zygosporangiasexual reproduction occurs by fusion of gametangiaasexual reproduction most commonhyphae produce clumps of erect stalks - sporangiophoresform sporangia
18 AscomycotaVery large group including yeasts, common molds, and morelsNamed for reproductive structure ascushaploid zygotic nucleus formed withinasci differentiated with ascocarpAsexual reproduction takes place in conidia spores at the end of conidiophores.
33 BasidiomycotaMost familiar fungi (mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs, rusts, and smuts)named for characteristic sexual reproductive structure, basidiumFour haploid products of meiosis incorporated into basidiosporesMycelium made up of monokaryotic hyphae is called primary mycelium.fusion of different mating types forms dikaryotic, secondary mycelium.
41 Ecology of FungiMutualistic associationslichens - fungi and green algaemycorrhizae - fungi and plant roots
42 LichensLichens are symbiotic associations between a fungus and a photosynthetic partner.usually ascomycetesSpecialized fungal hyphae penetrate photosynthetic cells and transfer nutrients to fungal partner.Durable fungus, combined with photosynthetic properties, has enabled lichens to invade harsh climates.extremely sensitive to pollutants
46 MycorrhizaeRoots of about 90% of all kinds of vascular plants are involved in mutualistic symbiotic relationships (mycorrhizae).arbuscular mycorrhizae - fungal hyphae penetrate outer cells of plant rootmost commonectomycorrhizae - hyphae surround, but do not penetrate, cell walls of roots