Presentation on theme: "The French Gothic Cathedral Chartres Cathedral (Nôtre-Dame de Chartres), France."— Presentation transcript:
The French Gothic Cathedral Chartres Cathedral (Nôtre-Dame de Chartres), France
Chartres Cathedral (Nôtre-Dame), Chartres, France, 1194-1221
Chartres Cathedral – façade (west)Chartres Cathedral – Royal Portal (façade portal) (late Romanesque 1130s) Ascension Christ in Majesty Virgin portal (incarnation) (figures early Gothic 1145-55)
Chartres Cathedral – south transept portal – three portals dedicated Last Judgment theme (High Gothic 1205-40)
Nôtre-Dame, Paris b. 1150-55, nave 1170-80, extensive rebuilding in 1220s, transept 1240s-50s façade 1200-45
Nôtre-Dame, Paris, 1150-55, 1220s I. The “modernist” Gothic technological revolution in large congregational basilicas (Gothic cathedrals) Île-de-France Nôtre-Dame, Laon, 1150s-1205 After St.-Denis’ Choir: Early Gothic Cathedrals
Nôtre-Dame – flying buttresses against nave elevation I. A. Flying buttresses 1. Why are flying buttresses needed at ever higher heights to buttress nave vaults?
early flying buttresses at Laon too Laon Cathedral – nave elevation & section solid quadrant arch under roof of gallery I. A. 1. flying buttress
I. A. 2. Why is the uppermost flyer necessary? Chartres Cathedral 113'
Unplanned upper flyer added at Chartres Cathedral I. A. 2.
Nôtre-Dame, ParisLaon Cathedral II. Aesthetics: Beyond structure – three aesthetic qualities that urban patrons wanted to see combined in the novel (“modernist”) sacred spaces of Gothic cathedrals? Early Gothic trends
Gothic Chartres Cathedral II. A. Spatial unity 1. How does the exterior massing contribute to a unified appearance? Romanesque Speyer Cathedral
II. A. 2. From the Romanesque to the Gothic, how does the basilical plan change to create greater spatial unity? Chartres Cathedral Romanesque (1000’s) vs. Gothic (1194-1221) Shrinking of transept and radiating chapels Romanesque Gothic
II. A. 2. Chartres Cathedral Nôtre-Dame 5-aisle basilica Romanesque pilgrimage church Gothic cathedrals
II. A. 3. How does pointed arch allow for greater spatial unity? quadripartite rib vaults (Chartres) transverse ribs side ribs diagonal ribs quadripartite rib vaults (Chartres)
Uniform apex height of the transverse, side, and diagonal ribs Pointed arches make spatial unity possible All round arches do not II. A. 3.
Gothic quadripartite vault w/ pointed arches Romanesque groin vault with round arches Speyer CathedralChartres Cathedral II. A. 3.
Chartres Cathedral walls can be thin or simply glazed B & C. Height and light: How do the three structural expedients – rib vaulting, pointed arch, and flying buttresses combine to make a soaring, diaphanous, luminous Gothic space possible?
II. B. & C. windows can be wider Chartres Cathedral pier-to-pier windows
tribune gallery supports nave vault no tribune gallery + high clerestorey ↓ flying buttresses essential to support nave vault Chartres Cathedral Romanesque Early Gothic High Gothic II. B. & C. 1. How did the desire for larger clerestory windows eliminate the tribune gallery
1 : 1 windows become longer Chartres Cathedral, south flank II. B. & C. 1.
Clerestory windows are longer – Light enters through full length & width of windows. early Gothichigh Gothic II. B. & C. 1. triforium
The triforium on interior enlivens the dead zone where the pent roof is II. B. & C. 1. Pent roof protects aisle vaults Chartres Cathedral
1 : 1 II. B. & C. 2. What are the three parts of the classic High Gothic nave elevation which results from lengthening the clerestory windows? 1. 2. 3.
III. Context: The Gothic cathedral as a turning point in architectural history Chartres CathedralFrench Royal domain – birthplace of Gothic Chartres ○
Chartres Cathedral - Royal Portal center portalOld Testament kings and queens III. A. Why was this novel kind of sacred architecture created first in cities, not at rural pilgrimage churches or monasteries? cities and royalty
III. A. Chartres Cathedral center portal West Portal (Royal Portal), 1130s-50South Portal, 1212-20
St.-Denis, Paris – façade Chartres Cathedral – façade Gate in a medieval city wall III. A. The Cathedral as Heavenly Jerusalem (Kingdom of Heaven)
a dog gargoyle at Chartresa beastie at Chartresa beastie at Notre-Dame, Paris III. A.
Gothic Chartres Cathedral Romanesque Ste.-Foy (abbey pilgrimage church) 12 th -13 th -century Urbanization - cities as centers for royal courts - home to elite merchant classes 11 th century Creativity in rural abbeys - pilgrimage trade Intellectually appreciated geometries represent divine truth Appreciation of - worldly goods - human senses and knowledge Plato: Neoplatonic philosophyAristotle’s natural sciences III. B. How do cathedrals express the mentality and contributions of an urban middle class?
III. B. Drapers, bankers, wine makers, and bakers represented in the stained glass windows of Chartres Cathedral Chartres Cathedral
Chartres Cathedral radiating spokes between flyers Cult of the Carts – civic involvement III. B.
Chartres: labyrinth design in pavementAmiens Cathedral: symbols of individual architects in the maze Daedalus – creator of the first labyrinth, first architect in Greek mythology