Presentation on theme: "The Legacy of the High Gothic Achievement: the Rayonnant Mode."— Presentation transcript:
The Legacy of the High Gothic Achievement: the Rayonnant Mode
I. Perfection of the High Gothic Cathedral in the Rayonnant style Reims Cathedral, 1211-90Bourges Cathedral, 1211-90 High Gothic (1195-1230) = period of unresolved experimentation
I. Amiens Cathedral (Nôtre-Dame), Amiens, France, 1220-1269 Perfection lies in a new visionary period = Rayonnant style (1230-1350)
I. A. Context: French king the pre-eminent ruler in Western Europe in 1200 French King Philip-Augustus (r. 1180-1223) Nôtre-Dame, Paris façade design 1200-10
I. A. 1. Long reign of Louis IX (1226-1270), St. Louis, makes Paris a cultural capital The Ste.-Chapelle (Holy Chapel), commissioned by Louis IX for the Royal Palace, Paris
I. A. 2. Start of the new court style, Rayonnant (“radiating”), with the rebuilding of St.-Denis’ upper choir, nave and transept in 1231 Abbey church of St.-Denis, Paris, 1231-50 St.-Denis – upper choir, b. 1231 St.-Denis – north transept, b. 1250
Amiens Cathedral, 1220-1269, first architect Robert de Luzarches I. B. Formal analysis and modernist structure: In what ways is Amiens Cathedral still like the classic design of Chartres? an elevational system rather than a true wall
Early ChristianRomanesque Gothic S. SabinaSpeyer CathedralAmiens Cathedral I. B.
Amiens CathedralChartres Cathedral piers taller & wider apart but similar thickness
I. C. Rayonnant style – qualities of a new visionary aesthetic in an influential new phase of Gothic Abbey church of St Nicaise, Reims, France, b. 1231 Decorative vocabulary becomes architectural (gables, crockets, small pinnacles) Mixture of blind and open tracery
ChartresReims High Gothic cathedrals: comparative height and design of buttressing BourgesAmiens I. C. 1. extreme verticality steeply proportioned
I. C. 1. St.-Denis – naveAmiens Cathedral – nave continuous vault responds
Amiens Cathedral – rose window on south transept I. C. 2. virtually autonomous arching structures instead of wall bar tracery = Rayonnant styleplate tracery = pierced stone Chartres Cathedral bar tracery – intensely modernist device
I. C. 3. Extreme structural lightness Amiens Cathedral screening effects like superimposed tracery
I. C. 3. Amiens Cathedral screening effects – clerestory mullions extend into triforium St.-Denis, Paris, 1231-50
Amiens Cathedral glazed triforium I. C. 4. extreme levels of illumination Lowered roof over the aisle vaults makes a glazed triforium possible
II. Gothic façade – confronting a new design problem Gothic Amiens Cathedral Santa Sabina Speyer Cathedral Early ChristianRomanesque
II. Chartres Cathedral (façade begun as Romanesque) Amiens Cathedral (Rayonnant Gothic façade)
Amiens Cathedral II. A. How is a unified Gothic exterior articulated all around the building?
Amiens Cathedral II. A. 1. How does the facade reconcile twin-towered idea with basilical section of the building?
II. A. 1. Portals: encyclopedic story of the Christian salvation. Amiens Cathedral
II. A. 1. Zodiac and Labors of the Months Amiens Cathedral
Ste-Chapelle (palace chapel of French kings), Paris, France,1241-48 IV. Symbolic architecture in the Gothic (medieval modernist) style
about the Ste-Chapelle IV. A. What are the components of this palatine chapel for the French monarch?
Ste-Chapelle, Upper Chapel IV. A. Ste-Chapelle, Lower Chapel
IV. B. How does the Ste-Chapelle epitomize the French Gothic Court or Rayonnant style in terms of: 1. interior elevation? Ste-Chapelle IV. B. 2. vaulting? steeply proportioned continuous vault responds
IV. B. 3. elevational system and buttressing? 20.5 m.
Ste-Chapelle IV. B. 3. St Nicaise, Reims, France, 1231 Decorative vocabulary becomes architectural (gables, crockets, small pinnacles)
IV. B. 4. tracery? Ste-Chapelle bar tracery – intensely modernist device
dado zone clerestorey Ste-Chapelle triforium clerestorey Chartres Cathedral IV. C. How did the designers give the king and his entourage the sensation that they hovered in the heavens (clerestory)? nave arcade
triforium clerestorey nave arcade Chartres Cathedral IV. C. Ste.-Chapelle
Holy Sepulchre Temple of Solomon JerusalemParis Ste-Chapelle Nôtre-Dame Cathedral Gauthier Cornut: “There can be no doubt that... the true Solomon (i.e., Louis IX), the peacemaker, proceeds to a second incarnation.” IV. D. Symbolism... 1. How did Paris become the “New Jerusalem” and what role did the Ste-Chapelle play?
Passion relics on display Ste-Chapelle IV. D. 2. What relics was it built to house? Pope Innocent IV: “The Lord has crowned you (Louis IX) with His Crown of Thorns.” Passion relics on display in the shrine
IV. D. 3. What church furnishing did the Ste.-Chapelle aggrandize? Ste-Chapellea Gothic reliquary Romanesque reliquary of Ste.-Foi
36 Christ’s first soldiers represented enamels and stone Early martyrs in the dado zone Ste-Chapelle dado zone: IV. D. 4. How did the materials and ornament make the case for Louis IX as the rightful king of Christendom?
Christ’s first soldiers (Apostles) in stone as transition zone Ste-Chapelle Apostles as pillars of the church IV. D. 4.
Translation of the Passion relics into Paris by Louis IX Ste-Chapelle Passion relics hover in clerestorey (“from the material to the immaterial”) IV. D. 4.
Louis IX hovers in clerestorey (“from the material to the immaterial”) Louis IX brings Passion relics to Paris Solomon worships false idol of his wives IV. D. 4.