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NTUT Academic Writing (Week 4): Participial Phrases.

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1 NTUT Academic Writing (Week 4): Participial Phrases

2 ※ Participle: a word formed from a verb and used as an adjective to modify nouns.

3 ※ Participial Phrases: participles + other modifiers;participles + other modifiers; used to modify nouns and pronouns.used to modify nouns and pronouns. To make it negative:To make it negative: Ex. The car ’ s driver, not realizing what had happened, continued on his way.Ex. The car ’ s driver, not realizing what had happened, continued on his way.

4 ※ Participial Phrases Formed from Relative Clauses: (by reducing subject pattern)(by reducing subject pattern)

5 ※ Position and Punctuation of Participial Phrases: A restrictive participial phrases follows the noun it modifies.A restrictive participial phrases follows the noun it modifies. Ex. There are twelve students receiving rewards this year.Ex. There are twelve students receiving rewards this year. A nonrestrictive phrase may precede or follow the noun it modifies.A nonrestrictive phrase may precede or follow the noun it modifies. Ex. Teresa, hurrying to catch a bus, stumbled and fell.Ex. Teresa, hurrying to catch a bus, stumbled and fell. Hurrying to catch a bus, Teresa stumbled and fell.Hurrying to catch a bus, Teresa stumbled and fell.

6 An introductory participial phrases modifies the noun IMMEDIATELY following it.An introductory participial phrases modifies the noun IMMEDIATELY following it. Ex. Hoping for an “ A, ” my exam gradeEx. Hoping for an “ A, ” my exam grade disappointed me. (X) disappointed me. (X) Hoping for an “ A, ” I was disappointed in Hoping for an “ A, ” I was disappointed in my exam grade. (O) my exam grade. (O) The participial phrase can also modify an entire independent clause.The participial phrase can also modify an entire independent clause. Ex. The team won the championship,Ex. The team won the championship, shocking the opponents. shocking the opponents.

7 ※ General Form Participles — Active Voice.

8 ※ Test Yourselves: 1. Robotics is a complex field that combines1. Robotics is a complex field that combines electrics, computer science, and mechanical electrics, computer science, and mechanical engineering. engineering. 2. The number of students who are studying2. The number of students who are studying robots is growing. robots is growing. 3. Soon, robots that will work in assembly plants will be3. Soon, robots that will work in assembly plants will be able to follow voice commands. able to follow voice commands. 4. Robots, which have the ability to withstand4. Robots, which have the ability to withstand temperatures and radiation levels, can temperatures and radiation levels, can perform jobs that are too dangerous for humans. perform jobs that are too dangerous for humans.

9 ※ General Form Participles — (1) Passive Voice:

10 (2) Continuous Form Participles emphasizes the Action(2) Continuous Form Participles emphasizes the Action is Happening Now: is Happening Now:

11 ※ Test Yourselves: 1. Computer programs that are known as expert system will combine1. Computer programs that are known as expert system will combine textbook knowledge and rules of experience to make decisions. textbook knowledge and rules of experience to make decisions. 2. Computers that are programmed to diagnose diseases accurately2. Computers that are programmed to diagnose diseases accurately are important tools for doctors. are important tools for doctors. 3. The uses of artificial intelligence that are now being suggested have3. The uses of artificial intelligence that are now being suggested have created excitement around the world. created excitement around the world. 4. Robots that are currently being designed will do many dangerous4. Robots that are currently being designed will do many dangerous jobs. jobs. 5. A robot that was built to work outside spaceships functioned5. A robot that was built to work outside spaceships functioned perfectly during its first assignment. perfectly during its first assignment.

12 ※ Perfect Form Participles: Active (having discovered) & Passive (having been discovered); Emphasize the COMPLETED action:Active (having discovered) & Passive (having been discovered); Emphasize the COMPLETED action:

13 ※ Test Yourselves: 1. Women around the world, who have traditionally been without political power, are beginning to gain1. Women around the world, who have traditionally been without political power, are beginning to gain influence in politics and government. influence in politics and government. 2. England, which has been ruled by queens several times in its history, elected a woman prime minister2. England, which has been ruled by queens several times in its history, elected a woman prime minister in in On the other land, voters in the United States, who have not experienced strong female leaders at the3. On the other land, voters in the United States, who have not experienced strong female leaders at the national level, may never elect a woman president. national level, may never elect a woman president. 4. Both India and Pakistan, which have elected women prime ministers in the past, are more progressive4. Both India and Pakistan, which have elected women prime ministers in the past, are more progressive in this area than the United States. in this area than the United States. 5. Alaska, which was purchased from Russia in 1867, became the 49th state of the U.S. in Alaska, which was purchased from Russia in 1867, became the 49th state of the U.S. in The state, which was once connected to Asia by a land bridge, is now separated from it by only a few6. The state, which was once connected to Asia by a land bridge, is now separated from it by only a few miles of water. miles of water. 7. The Eskimos, who have lived in Alaska for millions of years, have adapted well to their harsh7. The Eskimos, who have lived in Alaska for millions of years, have adapted well to their harsh environment. environment. 8. A problem that is being discussed by the Alaskan government concerns the rights of Alaska ’ s natives.8. A problem that is being discussed by the Alaskan government concerns the rights of Alaska ’ s natives. 9. Eskimos who wish to preserve their traditional way of life do not care about the modern world.9. Eskimos who wish to preserve their traditional way of life do not care about the modern world.

14 ※ Editing Practice (make 5 corrections):

15 ※ Participial Phrases from Adverbial Clauses:

16

17 ※ Test Yourselves: 1. Before I left home, I promised my parents that I would return.1. Before I left home, I promised my parents that I would return. 2. Since I made that promise four years ago, I have thought about it often.2. Since I made that promise four years ago, I have thought about it often. 3. Since I am the eldest son, I am responsible for taking care of my parents.3. Since I am the eldest son, I am responsible for taking care of my parents. 4. As they grow older, they will need my assistance.4. As they grow older, they will need my assistance. 5. After I had received my B.A., I went to graduate school for two years.5. After I had received my B.A., I went to graduate school for two years. 6. While I was studying at the University of Chicago, I enjoyed living in a6. While I was studying at the University of Chicago, I enjoyed living in a big city. big city. 7. When I think about my future, I always remember my promise.7. When I think about my future, I always remember my promise.

18 ※ Editing Practice:


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