2※Participle: a word formed from a verb and used as an adjective to modify nouns.
3※Participial Phrases: participles + other modifiers;used to modify nouns and pronouns.To make it negative:Ex. The car’s driver, not realizing what had happened, continued on his way.
4※Participial Phrases Formed from Relative Clauses: (by reducing subject pattern)
5※Position and Punctuation of Participial Phrases: A restrictive participial phrases follows the noun it modifies.Ex. There are twelve students receiving rewards this year.A nonrestrictive phrase may precede or follow the noun it modifies.Ex. Teresa, hurrying to catch a bus, stumbled and fell.Hurrying to catch a bus, Teresa stumbled and fell.
6An introductory participial phrases modifies the noun IMMEDIATELY following it. Ex. Hoping for an “A,” my exam gradedisappointed me. (X)Hoping for an “A,” I was disappointed inmy exam grade. (O)The participial phrase can also modify an entire independent clause.Ex. The team won the championship,shocking the opponents.
8※Test Yourselves: 1. Robotics is a complex field that combines electrics, computer science, and mechanicalengineering.2. The number of students who are studyingrobots is growing.3. Soon, robots that will work in assembly plants will beable to follow voice commands.4. Robots, which have the ability to withstandtemperatures and radiation levels, canperform jobs that are too dangerous for humans.
10(2) Continuous Form Participles emphasizes the Action is Happening Now:
11※Test Yourselves:1. Computer programs that are known as expert system will combinetextbook knowledge and rules of experience to make decisions.2. Computers that are programmed to diagnose diseases accuratelyare important tools for doctors.3. The uses of artificial intelligence that are now being suggested havecreated excitement around the world.4. Robots that are currently being designed will do many dangerousjobs.5. A robot that was built to work outside spaceships functionedperfectly during its first assignment.
12※Perfect Form Participles: Active (having discovered) & Passive (having been discovered); Emphasize the COMPLETED action:
13※Test Yourselves:1. Women around the world, who have traditionally been without political power, are beginning to gaininfluence in politics and government.2. England, which has been ruled by queens several times in its history, elected a woman prime ministerin 1979.3. On the other land, voters in the United States, who have not experienced strong female leaders at thenational level, may never elect a woman president.4. Both India and Pakistan, which have elected women prime ministers in the past, are more progressivein this area than the United States.5. Alaska, which was purchased from Russia in 1867, became the 49th state of the U.S. in 1959.6. The state, which was once connected to Asia by a land bridge, is now separated from it by only a fewmiles of water.7. The Eskimos, who have lived in Alaska for millions of years, have adapted well to their harshenvironment.8. A problem that is being discussed by the Alaskan government concerns the rights of Alaska’s natives.9. Eskimos who wish to preserve their traditional way of life do not care about the modern world.
17※Test Yourselves:1. Before I left home, I promised my parents that I would return.2. Since I made that promise four years ago, I have thought about it often.3. Since I am the eldest son, I am responsible for taking care of my parents.4. As they grow older, they will need my assistance.5. After I had received my B.A., I went to graduate school for two years.6. While I was studying at the University of Chicago, I enjoyed living in abig city.7. When I think about my future, I always remember my promise.