Presentation on theme: "PHRASES AND CLAUSES 8 th Grade Language Arts Mrs. Brunner."— Presentation transcript:
PHRASES AND CLAUSES 8 th Grade Language Arts Mrs. Brunner
Phrase A group of words that is used as a single part of speech It does NOT contain a subject or predicate Each type of phrases can be used as an adjective or an adverb Example of adjectival phrase Mrs. Brunner and Mrs. Louden are part of St. Joseph School. Example of adverbial phrase In the 1960s, Mrs. Delio wore an Afro and a mini-skirt.
Types of Phrases 1. Prepositional Has a preposition, object of preposition and modifiers of the preposition Begins with preposition, ends with a noun Adverbial prepositional phrase Mr. Brunner was a Marine in 1970. phrase modifies the verb ‘was’ Adjectival prepositional phrase Mr. Brunner was weapons expert within the United States Marine Corp. Phrase modifies the noun ‘expert’
Types of Phrases 2. Participial Made up of a present or past participle and the words that go along with it Always adjectival, can’t be adverbial Example Participating in every major US war, Mr. Brunner is a decorated hero. Phrase describes the proper noun Mr. Brunner
Phrases 3. Infinitive Made up of to and it’s base verb (ex. to serve), plus the any words that go along with it can act as an adjective, adverb, or a noun Begins with to and verb Adjective example A good way to serve the country is in the Marine Corp. Phrase modifies the noun ‘way’ Adverb example It was good enough to be in the Marine Corp. Phrase modifies the adjective ‘enough’ Noun example To serve his country is the reason that he became a Marine. Phrase is acting and a noun (the subject of sentence)
Phrases - The Big Point… A phrase is a group of words used as a single part of speech Mostly used as an adjective or adverb Does not have a subject or predicate There are 3 types of phrases; know them There are certain clues to identify the type; know them
Clauses Group of words that contains a subject and predicate Ex. 2 types: Dependant - Independent - Each clause acts as either an adjective or adverb
Adjectival Clauses Is a dependant clause Describes a noun or pronoun Most begin with a relative pronoun Who, whom, whose, which, that Some begin with a subordinate conjunction Where, when, why Antecedent – word that relative pronoun refers to Ex. I attend St. Joseph school, which is in Downingtown. What is the clause? Relative pronoun? Antecedent?
Identify the adjectival clause and the noun/pronoun it describes. 1. I traveled to the land of 8A with my friend Steve, who invited me on the trip. 2. Steve is a person whose ideas of adventure always turn out to be exciting. 3. We headed to the playground which was covered with snow. 4. It seemed suited to the people who like to play in the cold. 5. Can you answer exercises 2 and 3 on pg. 145?
Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Adjectival Clauses Restrictive – clause is essential to the meaning of sentence Doesn’t have comas Relative pronoun ‘that’ is usually used Nonrestrictive – clause that is not essential to the meaning of the sentence Has comas Proper noun usually follows the clause Relative pronoun ‘which’ is usually used
Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses Identify the clause and if it is restrictive or nonrestrictive. What are your clues? 1. Math class, which is taught by Mrs. Louden, is the best in the school. 2. The page has more than 50 problems, which need to be done in order. 3. The benefits that are provided by math include intelligence, problem solving, and happiness.
Adverbial Clauses Dependant clauses that act as adverbs or give information about verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs Ex. Where ever they went, 8A was respected by all of the other students.
Common Adverbs List the adverbs from page 148 in your text.
Clauses – The Big Point… Group of words that have a subject and predicate 2 types: dependant and independent Act like adjectives and adverbs If you know your adverbs, it is easier to identify
Review exercise Identify the dependent clause. Tell whether it is adjectival or adverbial. 1. Nobody knows 8A’s fate when they graduated from St. Joseph school. 2. Perhaps Katarina became a millionaire, unless she married Matt Honjnacki. 3. The book Jessica wrote, which was called Trials of a Middle School Student, was a best seller. 4. So you don’t get lost at Shanahan, you should take a tour first.