Verbs and Verbals Infinitives, Gerunds, and Participles.
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Verbs and Verbals Infinitives, Gerunds, and Participles
Finite and Conjugated Verbs Conjugated verbs – Verbs in predicates conjugated or formed into tenses, moods, aspects, and voices Finite verbs – Non-conjugated verbs – Infinitives, Gerunds, or Participles These are also called VERBALS
Verbals are “part verb” As “part-verb” structures, they retain all of the verb qualities – They may be modified by adverbs – They may take subjects, objects and complements – They may be negated – They may have tenses and/or voices
Infinitives may be nominals Infinitives are the base form of the verb (+ “to”) – To go to class on a beautiful, sunny day is not fun. “To go to class on a beautiful, sunny day” is the infinitive phrase “to class” is an adverbial prepositional phrase inside that infinitive phrase and modifying the infinitive “To go” “on a beautiful, sunny day” is an adverbial prepositional phrase inside that infinitive phrase and modifying the infinitive “To go” The infinitive phrase is acting as a noun and is the subject of the verb “is” in this pattern 2 sentence.
is fun not To go to class on a beautiful sunny day Pattern 3 Infinitive is pattern 6
Functions of the Infinitive Infinitives may act as adverbs – modifying verbs – To fix the election, Jones named his wife to the commission. “To fix the election” is an adverb modifying “named” “the election” is the direct object of the infinitive “To fix” as adjectives – modifying nouns and as nouns – subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, subject complements, object complements, appositives
Jones named wife to his fixelection the commission the Pattern 7 Infinitive phrase is pattern 7
Gerunds Gerunds are the “ing” form of the verb Gerunds only act as nouns in sentences – My doctor labels dieting without exercise as the worst possible choice. “dieting without exercise” is the gerund phrase – “dieting” is the gerund – “without exercise” is an adjectival prepositional phrase modifying that gerund “dieting” The entire gerund phrase is the direct object of “labels” in this pattern 10 sentence in which “worst possible choice” is the object complement renaming “dieting without exercise”
doctor labels choice the worst possible as My dieting exercise without Pattern 6 gerund phrase in DO slot of sentence Pattern 10 sentence
Present Participles (not in conjugated verbs!) Present Participles are also the “ing” form of the verb Present participles are always active voice Present participles only act as adjectives. – We live by a running brook. “running” is the present participle modifying the noun “brook” that is the object of the preposition “by” in this pattern 6 sentence.
Past Participles (not in conjugated verbs!) Past Participles are the “en” or “ed” form of the verb Past Participles are always passive voice Past Participles only act as adjectives – Run off her feet by the children, Ann slept. The entire participle phrase “Run off her feet by the children” modifies “Ann” The two adverbial prepositional phrases “off her feet” and “by the children” both modify the past participle “Run”
Ann slept off her feet by children the Pattern 6 –participial phrase is also pattern 6