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Prepositional, Appositive, Participial, Gerund, and Infinitive Phrases

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Presentation on theme: "Prepositional, Appositive, Participial, Gerund, and Infinitive Phrases"— Presentation transcript:

1 Prepositional, Appositive, Participial, Gerund, and Infinitive Phrases

2 Prepositional Phrases
Phrase – a group of words that acts in a sentence as a single part of speech Prepositional phrase – a group of words that begins with a preposition and usually ends with a noun or pronoun, called the object of the preposition

3 Functions of Prepositional Phrases
Adjective Prepositional Phrase – modifies a noun or a pronoun Example – The boy on the corner owns the blue car. Adverb Prepositional Phrase – modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb Example – The bus always stops at the corner. Example – This job will be easy for Bill.

4 Appositives/Appositive Phrases
Appositive – a noun or a pronoun that is placed next to another noun or pronoun to identify or give additional information about it Appositive phrase – an appositive plus any words that modify the appositive

5 Examples of Appositives
My friend Chris sings in the choir. Appositive = Chris Jill, the director of the choir, won an award. Appositive = the director of the choir


7 Verbals and Verbal Phrases
Verbal = a verb form that functions in a sentence as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb Verbal phrase – a verbal plus any complements and modifiers 3 types of verbals Participles Gerunds Infinitives

8 Participles and Participial Phrases
Participle – a verb form that can function as an adjective Present participles – always end in –ing Past participles – typically end in –ed May end in other forms as well

9 Participles as Adjectives Vs. Participles in Verb Phrases
Participle as Adjective The marching band will win the contest this year. Participle in Verb Phrase The band will be marching in the parade.

10 Participial Phrases Participial phrases – contains a participle plus any complements and modifiers Function as adjectives Example – Marching down the street, the band played the fight song. Example – The dog, tired from his game of chase, finally fell asleep in the yard. **Take note of the commas


12 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases
A verb form that ends in –ing and is used in the same way a noun is used Gerund phrase – a gerund plus any complements and modifiers

13 Examples of Gerunds/Gerund Phrases
The dog’s barking kept me awake all night. What is the gerund? What is its function? Gerund = barking (acts as noun as subject) At the time, the press questioned both NASA’s engineering and its handling of the shuttle program. Gerund = engineering/ handling (acts as nouns as direct objects)

14 Participle vs. Gerund Both present participles and gerunds end in –ing. How can you tell the difference? Walking, rather than running, is much better for recovering athletes. Gerunds? walking/ running Participles? recovering

15 Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases
A verb form that is usually preceded by the word to and is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb To + verb = infinitive To + noun or pronoun = prepositional phrase Infinitive phrase – contains an infinitive plus any complements and modifiers

16 Examples of Infinitives/ Infinitive Phrases
To work in outer space is not easy. What is the infinitive? What is its function? Infinitive = to work (acts as a noun as subject) Astronauts have many procedures to learn. Infinitive = to learn (acts as an adjective) We were happy to win the game. Infinitive = to win (acts as an adverb)

17 Infinitive Clause If infinitive has its own subject, then the infinitive is part of a clause rather than part of a phrase. Subject of infinitive clause follows the main verb of the sentence and comes right before the infinitive. Infinitive clauses may only follow an action verb.

18 Examples of Infinitive Clauses
The teacher wanted the student to read the book. Infinitive Clause = the student to read the book The student = subject Infinitive = to read Entire infinitive clause functions as direct object.

19 Please take note! Sometimes the word to is dropped before the infinitive Example – Let me [to] get your advice. Not necessary to use the word to Creates awkwardness in speech or writing


21 Absolute Phrases A noun or pronoun that is modified by a participle or a participial phrase Has no grammatical relation to the rest of the sentence Does not belong to the complete subject or complete predicate Stands “absolutely” on its own

22 Examples of Absolute Phrases
The point guard pressed on up the floor, his strength gone. Absolute? = his strength gone Our money having been spent, we left the mall with our purchases. = our money having been spent

23 Let’s Review! Prepositional phrases function as what?
Adjectives or adverbs Appositives describe what? Nouns Participles function as what? Adjectives Gerunds function as what? Infinitives function as what? Nouns, adjectives, or adverbs

24 Keep Reviewing! Appositives begin with what?
Noun or pronoun Participles end with what? -ing for present/ -ed or irregular form for past Gerunds end with what? -ing Infinitives are formed how? to + verb Absolutes are formed how? Noun or pronoun + participle/ participial phrase

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