Presentation on theme: "Prepositional, Appositive, Participial, Gerund, and Infinitive Phrases"— Presentation transcript:
1Prepositional, Appositive, Participial, Gerund, and Infinitive Phrases
2Prepositional Phrases Phrase – a group of words that acts in a sentence as a single part of speechPrepositional phrase – a group of words that begins with a preposition and usually ends with a noun or pronoun, called the object of the preposition
3Functions of Prepositional Phrases Adjective Prepositional Phrase – modifies a noun or a pronounExample – The boy on the corner owns the blue car.Adverb Prepositional Phrase – modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverbExample – The bus always stops at the corner.Example – This job will be easy for Bill.
4Appositives/Appositive Phrases Appositive – a noun or a pronoun that is placed next to another noun or pronoun to identify or give additional information about itAppositive phrase – an appositive plus any words that modify the appositive
5Examples of Appositives My friend Chris sings in the choir.Appositive = ChrisJill, the director of the choir, won an award.Appositive = the director of the choir
7Verbals and Verbal Phrases Verbal = a verb form that functions in a sentence as a noun, an adjective, or an adverbVerbal phrase – a verbal plus any complements and modifiers3 types of verbalsParticiplesGerundsInfinitives
8Participles and Participial Phrases Participle – a verb form that can function as an adjectivePresent participles – always end in –ingPast participles – typically end in –edMay end in other forms as well
9Participles as Adjectives Vs. Participles in Verb Phrases Participle as AdjectiveThe marching band will win the contest this year.Participle in Verb PhraseThe band will be marching in the parade.
10Participial PhrasesParticipial phrases – contains a participle plus any complements and modifiersFunction as adjectivesExample – Marching down the street, the band played the fight song.Example – The dog, tired from his game of chase, finally fell asleep in the yard.**Take note of the commas
12Gerunds and Gerund Phrases A verb form that ends in –ing and is used in the same way a noun is usedGerund phrase – a gerund plus any complements and modifiers
13Examples of Gerunds/Gerund Phrases The dog’s barking kept me awake all night.What is the gerund? What is its function?Gerund = barking (acts as noun as subject)At the time, the press questioned both NASA’s engineering and its handling of the shuttle program.Gerund = engineering/ handling (acts as nouns as direct objects)
14Participle vs. GerundBoth present participles and gerunds end in –ing. How can you tell the difference?Walking, rather than running, is much better for recovering athletes.Gerunds?walking/ runningParticiples?recovering
15Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases A verb form that is usually preceded by the word to and is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverbTo + verb = infinitiveTo + noun or pronoun = prepositional phraseInfinitive phrase – contains an infinitive plus any complements and modifiers
16Examples of Infinitives/ Infinitive Phrases To work in outer space is not easy.What is the infinitive? What is its function?Infinitive = to work (acts as a noun as subject)Astronauts have many procedures to learn.Infinitive = to learn (acts as an adjective)We were happy to win the game.Infinitive = to win (acts as an adverb)
17Infinitive ClauseIf infinitive has its own subject, then the infinitive is part of a clause rather than part of a phrase.Subject of infinitive clause follows the main verb of the sentence and comes right before the infinitive.Infinitive clauses may only follow an action verb.
18Examples of Infinitive Clauses The teacher wanted the student to read the book.Infinitive Clause = the student to read the bookThe student = subjectInfinitive = to readEntire infinitive clause functions as direct object.
19Please take note!Sometimes the word to is dropped before the infinitiveExample – Let me [to] get your advice.Not necessary to use the word toCreates awkwardness in speech or writing
21Absolute PhrasesA noun or pronoun that is modified by a participle or a participial phraseHas no grammatical relation to the rest of the sentenceDoes not belong to the complete subject or complete predicateStands “absolutely” on its own
22Examples of Absolute Phrases The point guard pressed on up the floor, his strength gone.Absolute?= his strength goneOur money having been spent, we left the mall with our purchases.= our money having been spent
23Let’s Review! Prepositional phrases function as what? Adjectives or adverbsAppositives describe what?NounsParticiples function as what?AdjectivesGerunds function as what?Infinitives function as what?Nouns, adjectives, or adverbs
24Keep Reviewing! Appositives begin with what? Noun or pronounParticiples end with what?-ing for present/ -ed or irregular form for pastGerunds end with what?-ingInfinitives are formed how?to + verbAbsolutes are formed how?Noun or pronoun + participle/ participial phrase