Presentation on theme: "Phrases Prepositional, Appositive, Participial, Gerund, and Infinitive Phrases."— Presentation transcript:
Phrases Prepositional, Appositive, Participial, Gerund, and Infinitive Phrases
Prepositional Phrases O Phrase – a group of words that acts in a sentence as a single part of speech O Prepositional phrase – a group of words that begins with a preposition and usually ends with a noun or pronoun, called the object of the preposition
Functions of Prepositional Phrases O Adjective Prepositional Phrase – modifies a noun or a pronoun O Example – The boy on the corner owns the blue car. O Adverb Prepositional Phrase – modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb O Example – The bus always stops at the corner. O Example – This job will be easy for Bill.
Appositives/Appositive Phrases O Appositive – a noun or a pronoun that is placed next to another noun or pronoun to identify or give additional information about it O Appositive phrase – an appositive plus any words that modify the appositive
Examples of Appositives O My friend Chris sings in the choir. O Appositive = Chris O Jill, the director of the choir, won an award. O Appositive = the director of the choir
Verbals and Verbal Phrases O Verbal = a verb form that functions in a sentence as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb O Verbal phrase – a verbal plus any complements and modifiers O 3 types of verbals O Participles O Gerunds O Infinitives
Participles and Participial Phrases O Participle – a verb form that can function as an adjective O Present participles – always end in –ing O Past participles – typically end in –ed O May end in other forms as well
Participles as Adjectives Vs. Participles in Verb Phrases O Participle as Adjective O The marching band will win the contest this year. O Participle in Verb Phrase O The band will be marching in the parade.
Participial Phrases O Participial phrases – contains a participle plus any complements and modifiers O Function as adjectives O Example – Marching down the street, the band played the fight song. O Example – The dog, tired from his game of chase, finally fell asleep in the yard. O **Take note of the commas
Gerunds and Gerund Phrases O A verb form that ends in –ing and is used in the same way a noun is used O Gerund phrase – a gerund plus any complements and modifiers
Examples of Gerunds/Gerund Phrases O The dog’s barking kept me awake all night. O What is the gerund? What is its function? O Gerund = barking (acts as noun as subject) O At the time, the press questioned both NASA’s engineering and its handling of the shuttle program. O What is the gerund? What is its function? O Gerund = engineering/ handling (acts as nouns as direct objects)
Participle vs. Gerund O Both present participles and gerunds end in – ing. How can you tell the difference? O Walking, rather than running, is much better for recovering athletes. O Gerunds? O walking/ running O Participles? O recovering
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases O A verb form that is usually preceded by the word to and is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb O To + verb = infinitive O To + noun or pronoun = prepositional phrase O Infinitive phrase – contains an infinitive plus any complements and modifiers
Examples of Infinitives/ Infinitive Phrases O To work in outer space is not easy. O What is the infinitive? What is its function? O Infinitive = to work (acts as a noun as subject) O Astronauts have many procedures to learn. O What is the infinitive? What is its function? O Infinitive = to learn (acts as an adjective) O We were happy to win the game. O What is the infinitive? What is its function? O Infinitive = to win (acts as an adverb)
Infinitive Clause O If infinitive has its own subject, then the infinitive is part of a clause rather than part of a phrase. O Subject of infinitive clause follows the main verb of the sentence and comes right before the infinitive. O Infinitive clauses may only follow an action verb.
Examples of Infinitive Clauses O The teacher wanted the student to read the b ook. O Infinitive Clause = the student to read the book O The student = subject O Infinitive = to read O Entire infinitive clause functions as direct object.
Please take note! O Sometimes the word to is dropped before the infinitive O Example – Let me [to] get your advice. O Not necessary to use the word to O Creates awkwardness in speech or writing
Absolute Phrases O A noun or pronoun that is modified by a participle or a participial phrase O Has no grammatical relation to the rest of the sentence O Does not belong to the complete subject or complete predicate O Stands “absolutely” on its own
Examples of Absolute Phrases O The point guard pressed on up the floor, his strength gone. Absolute? = his strength gone Our money having been spent, we left the mall with our purchases. Absolute? = our money having been spent
Let’s Review! O Prepositional phrases function as what? O Adjectives or adverbs O Appositives describe what? O Nouns O Participles function as what? O Adjectives O Gerunds function as what? O Nouns O Infinitives function as what? O Nouns, adjectives, or adverbs
Keep Reviewing! O Appositives begin with what? O Noun or pronoun O Participles end with what? O -ing for present/ -ed or irregular form for past O Gerunds end with what? O -ing O Infinitives are formed how? O to + verb O Absolutes are formed how? O Noun or pronoun + participle/ participial phrase