Presentation on theme: "Gerunds & Infinitives Focus on Academic English. Why study them? O Gerunds and infinitives are common features of both spoken and written English. A person."— Presentation transcript:
Why study them? O Gerunds and infinitives are common features of both spoken and written English. A person who tries __________ English without __________ gerund and infinitives will produce very unnatural-sounding sentences. __________ __________ and __________ these structures fluently is important for students. O Can you decide what the blanks could contain?
How to use Gerunds O As the subject of a clause (p. 301): O Getting an A is awesome. O As the object of a verb (p. 301, 307): O I love giving students A’s. O As the object of a preposition (p. 302): O I dreamed about riding a horse. O Let’s practice: p. 305, Ex. 8 O “Go” + activities (p. 309): O Let’s go shopping this weekend!
How to use Infinitives O As the object of a verb (p. 313): O I hope to pass the class. O My parents expect me to call them. O As the subject or “It” + infinitive (p. 322): O To cheat is a shameful thing. O It is shameful to cheat.
How to use Infinitives O To show Purpose (p. 331): O Use a dictionary (in order) to look up new words. O Let’s practice: p. 331, Ex. 1, 2, 3 O After an Adjective (p. 333): O They were anxious to begin the test. O After a Noun: O It was a good decision to study abroad. O *Handout
More Advanced! Gerund FormsInfinitive Forms ActiveShe enjoys teaching the students. She wants to teach them. Passive (p. 338) The students enjoy being taught. The students want to be taught. Perfect (past) The teacher remembered having taught that before. The teacher is glad to have found a job she likes. Passive + Perfect The students recalled having been taught that already. The students expected to have been taught that by now.
Passive Gerunds O Passive Gerund: being + past participle O I am invited to the party. O I appreciate the invitation. O I appreciate being invited to the party. O I was left behind when my friends went to a movie. O I regret that. O I regret being left behind.
Let’s Practice! (refer to pp. 324-325) O I was yelled at by my boss. O I resent that. O I resent… O I was given flowers. O I was excited about that. O I was excited about…
Passive Infinitives O Passive Infinitive: to be + past participle O I’m not usually complimented by Joanna. O I don’t expect it. O I don’t expect to be complimented by Joanna. O I’m afraid that I will be bitten by a dog. O I don’t want it. O I don’t want to be bitten by a dog.
Let’s Practice! O You are supposed to type your assignments. O Your assignments… O The students want more time for the test. O They think the teacher should give them more time. O The students want…