Presentation on theme: "REPHRASING THE FIRST TERM Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Continuous and Perfect Going to Contrast Clauses Cause and consequence Adjectives and adverbs:"— Presentation transcript:
REPHRASING THE FIRST TERM Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Continuous and Perfect Going to Contrast Clauses Cause and consequence Adjectives and adverbs: comparatives, superlatives, too/enough Passive voice Have something done
Present Perfect The last time I went to Brazil was ten years ago. I … HAVEN’T BEEN TO BRAZIL FOR TEN YEARS. I … HAVEN’T BEEN TO BRAZIL SINCE He hasn’t smoked since THE LAST TIME… HE SMOKED WAS IN 2005.
Past Perfect The president got elected. Then, she took some decisions. AFTER… THE PRESIDENT HAD GOT ELECTED, SHE TOOK SOME DECISIONS. BEFORE… SHE TOOK SOME DECISIONS, THE PRESIDENT HAD GOT ELECTED.
FUTURE CONTINUOUS AND PERFECT The football match starts at 20:45 and finishes at 22:30. AT 21:00, … THE PLAYERS WILL BE PLAYING A FOOTBALL MATCH. BY 23:00, … THE MATCH WILL HAVE FINISHED. BY 23:00, … AJAX WILL HAVE BEATEN THE SUGAR OUT OF REAL MADRID.
GOING TO She has the intention of leaving her husband soon. SHE IS… GOING TO LEAVE HER HUSBAND SOON.
CONTRAST CLAUSES We alternate “connector + noun” and “connector + phrase” and connector at the beginning of the sentence structures. Although it rained, we decided to go camping. Despite… the fact it rained, we decided to go camping. Despite… the rain, we decided to go camping. In spite of the fact he knew all the answers, he failed the exam. Although… he knew all the answers, he failed the exam. Las Vegas is in the middle of the desert. However, millions of people go there every year. Although… Las Vegas is in the middle of the desert, millions of people go there every year. Despite… the fact that Las Vegas is in the middle of the desert, millions of people go there every year.
CAUSE AND CONSEQUENCE Three possibilities: Cause to Consequence, Consequence to Cause or Cause to Cause. CAUSE TO CAUSE: I didn’t understand the lesson because the teacher spoke too fast. Due to… the fact that the teacher spoke too fast, I didn’t understand the lesson. As… the teacher spoke too fast, I didn’t understand the lesson. CONSEQUENCE TO CAUSE: The teacher spoke too fast. Therefore, I didn’t understand the lesson. Due to… the fact that the teacher spoke too fast, I didn’t understand the lesson. I didn’t… understand the lesson because the teacher spoke too fast. CAUSE TO CONSEQUENCE: I didn’t understand the lesson because the teacher spoke too fast. The teacher… spoke too fast. Therefore, I didn’t the understand the lesson. The teacher spoke so… fast that I didn’t understand the lesson.
ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS: comparisons The soya grows faster than other plants. Equality : Other plants… don’t grow as fast as the soya. Inferiority: Other plants… grow less fast than the soya. Opposite : Other plants… grow more slowly than the soya. I speak English better than you do. You don’t… speak English as well as I do. You… speak English worse than I do. Nobody plays better than Iniesta. Superlative: Iniesta… is the best player (in the world). No woman is more beautiful than Scarlett Johanson. Scarlett Johanson… is the most beautiful woman.
ADJECTIVES: too + adjective and adjective + enough He’s too lazy to go to university He isn’t… hard-working enough to go to university This hotel is too expensive for me. This hotel isn’t… cheap enough for me.
Passive voice’s three secrets 1. The object becomes subject the and vice-versa. 2. The verb “to be” must be in the same tense and form as the main verb in the active voice. 3. The main verb must always be in the past participle. I drove a car: A car was driven He cleans the room: The room is cleaned He’s taking a picture: A picture is being taken. We have just bought a new house: A new house has just been bought. My students must revise the lesson: The lesson must be revised. They should have known all the answers: All the answers should have been known. When we think the passive object can be important we introduce it with “by”: The beach was cleaned by the voluteers. It’s not generally used when the active subject is “they, people…”
Passive voice’s two extra secrets Sometimes, when the active verb has two objects, either one of them can the passive subject. It’s the case with verbs like “tell, show, lend, give, send…”. He told me a story: A story was told to me I was told a story. They gave him some money: Some money was given to him. He was given some money. With verbs like “think, know, say, believe…” two further transformations are possible. People believe that the Internet is essential. It is believed that the Internet is essential. The Internet is believed to be essential.
A special kind of passive: the causative or “have something done” It’s used when other people do something for us. The hairdresser will cut my hair. I will have my hair cut. The plumber repaired my bathroom yesterday. I had my bathroom repaired yesterday. SUBJECT (person who receives the benefit of the action) + HAVE (in the appropriate tense) + OBJECT (the same as in the active voice) + PAST PARTICIPLE OF THE MAIN VERB. The verb “to have” can be substituted by “to get”. We will get our exams corrected.