Presentation on theme: "PHRASES AND CLAUSES. REVIEW A sentence needs a subject and predicate (the action of the subject) Modifiers modify nouns and verbs Adjectives modify."— Presentation transcript:
REVIEW A sentence needs a subject and predicate (the action of the subject) Modifiers modify nouns and verbs Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES Preposition + object + modifiers After school, we went to the football game.
APPOSITIVE PHRASES Nouns that rename another noun. It’s like saying “I’m positive this is so” Examples: My mother, a lovely woman, baked cupcakes for my birthday. My mother is concerned about her horse, Chief.
ABSOLUTE PHRASES Noun + participle + modifier Modifies an entire sentence instead of just a word or phrase Examples: Legs quivering, our old dog Gizmo dreamed of chasing squirrels. Her arms folded across her chest, Ms. Knox warned the class about the importance of homework.
VERBAL PHRASES Verb forms not used as verbs Retain many properties of verbs by taking objects, having subjects, or being modified by adverbs Types Infinitive Gerund Participle
INFINITIVE PHRASE To + verb Can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb Example: To read these papers will take a long time. I am ready to write the paper now.
GERUND PHRASE -ing form of a verb Used as a noun Examples: Walking is a healthy exercise. Proper shoes are needed for comfortable walking.
PARTICIPLE PHRASE Noun + participle The participle (past, present, or perfect participle) is used as an adjective Examples: The girl talking on the phone is Mary. The report, accurately written, was approved by him.
PARTICIPLE report the accurately was approved by him
CLAUSE A group of related words which contain a subject and a verb A sentence is always a clause, but a clause is not always a sentence.
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE Meets the qualifications of a clause Makes sense Example: She had not finished the paper and was sure to get a low grade.
DEPENDENT CLAUSE Definition Meets the qualifications of a clause Does not make sense and is regarded as a fragment Must be accompanied by an independent clause Example: Because she had not finished the paper. Types Noun clause Adjective clause Adverbial clause
NOUN CLAUSE Dependent clauses used like nouns Example: That she had not finished the paper was the reason for her low grade. I know what I will do today. She wondered about what she will do next.
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE Used to point out or describe any noun or pronoun in the sentence A relative pronoun always introduces an adjective clause Who, whom, whose, which, that May be restrictive or nonrestrictive The car which is parked by the curb belongs to me. The car, which is parked by the curb, belongs to me.
ADVERBIAL CLAUSE Used as adverbs Introduced by subordinate conjunctions After, although, as, as if, because, before, if, since, so that, that, unless, until, when, where, while When it begins a sentence, it is set off by commas. Example Because he was late, she was angry. She was angry because he was late.