2 “The only thing that makes life possible is permanent, intolerable uncertainty: not knowing what comes next.” – Ursula K. Le Guin
3 Objectives List the reasons people color their hair. Explain how the hair’s porosity affects haircolor.Understand the types of melanin found in hair.Define and identify levels and their role in formulating haircolor.
4 Objectives (continued) Identify primary, secondary, and tertiary colors.Know what role tone and intensity play in haircolor.List and describe the categories of haircolor.
5 Objectives (continued) Explain the role of hydrogen peroxide in a haircolor formula.Explain the action of hair lighteners.List the four key questions to ask when formulating a haircolor.Understand why a patch test is useful in haircoloring.
6 Objectives (continued) Define what a preliminary strand test is and explain why it is used.List and describe the procedure for a virgin single- process color service.Understand the two processes involved in double- process haircoloring.Describe the various forms of hair lightener.
7 Objectives (continued) Understand the purpose and use of toners.Name and describe the three common methods for highlighting.Know how to properly cover gray hair.Know the rules of color correction.Know the safety precautions to follow during haircoloring.LEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?)Did you know that qualified hair colorists make more money and are in more demand than any other specialists in the field of cosmetology? It’s also been determined that seven out of ten professionals claim that, of all the services they provide, they are least comfortable with haircoloring. Hopefully, as you study this unit on haircolor, you will be able to overcome any fears of haircoloring and be able to face these services with enthusiasm and excitement over the money to be earned. Think also about how much more detail the client’s face has after the hair has been colored: The eyes stand out more, the cheekbones are more defined, and the complexion appears more radiant. That’s a lot to become enthused about. Haircoloring is logically and systematically performed; it is not a trial-and-error process even though it was considered to have been so in the past. It is both a science and an art. Fine-tuning your skills and performing this service with credibility and clarity will serve you well as a professional cosmetologist.Haircoloring includes the processes of:depositing color on natural hair color;depositing color on previously colored hair;depositing color on hair that has been lightened;lightening and depositing color in one step.Hair lightening, or decolorizing, diffuses natural or artificial color from hair. The process involves decolorizing the natural pigment to prepare the hair for final color and decolorizing natural or artificial pigment to the desired color.Statistics show that clients who only receive haircuts from a stylist stay with that stylist for an average of two years, while clients who receive color services stay with their stylist for eight years! Loyal clients mean higher income.Before you can begin your skills practice, however, it’s important for you to understand some underlying principles of the color wheel, color theory, and color levels.
8 Haircolor vs. Hair color Haircolor: a professional, industry-coined term referring to products and services for artificially coloring the hairHair color: refers to the natural color of the hairHAIRCOLOR VS. HAIR COLORFor example, you might say, “Mary Stewart’s natural hair color is medium brown, but she is coming in today for a haircolor service to have low lights created.”
9 Reasons for Coloring Hair Cover up or blend gray hairEnhance existing hair colorCreate a fashion statement or statement of self expressionCorrect unwanted tonesAccentuate a particular haircutREASONS FOR COLORING HAIRThe client consultation will help you determine why a client wants to color his or her hair and what products and services are appropriate.To cover up or blend gray hair. Gray hair is considered to be unpigmentedTo enhance an existing haircolorTo create a fashion statement or a personal statement of self-expressionTo correct unwanted tones that may have been caused by environmental exposure such as the sun or chlorine in swimming poolsTo accentuate a particular haircut
10 Hair FactsThe hair structure affects the quality and ultimate success of the haircolor service.The structure of the hair and the desired results determine which haircolor product to use.
11 Hair StructureCuticle: outermost layer that contributes 20 percent of overall strengthCortex: middle layer that contributes 80 percent of overall strengthMedulla: innermost layer (sometimes absent)HAIR STRUCTURE: Hair structure is covered in depth in Chapter 9. Here is a review (Figure 21–2).CUTICLE: The outermost layer of hair; protects the interior cortex and contributes to 20 percent of overall strength of hair.CORTEX: The middle layer of hair; gives hair strength and elasticity; contributes about 80 percent to the overall strength of hair. It contains natural pigment called melanin; melanin granules are scattered between cortex cells like chips in a chocolate chip cookie.MEDULLA: The innermost layer of hair; sometimes absent from hair; plays a very minor role in hair coloring.
12 Texture Coarse: large hair-strand diameter. Medium: medium hair-strand diameter.Fine: small hair-strand diameter.TEXTURE: Determined by the diameter of the individual hair strand.
13 Density Number of hairs per square inch Refers to hair thickness DENSITY: The number of hairs per square inch on the head; how thick the hair is. Density will affect the proper and complete coverage of a haircolor application.
14 Porosity The ability of the hair to absorb moisture Porous hair accepts haircolor faster and permits a darker color than less-porous hair.POROSITY: The ability of the hair to absorb moisture; porous hair accepts haircolor faster and permits darker color than less-porous hair does.
15 Types of Porosity Low porosity – tight cuticle, resistant hair Average porosity – cuticle slightly raised; average timeHigh porosity – cuticle lifted; quicker processing timeTest for porosity – finger and thumb testLOW POROSITY: Cuticle is tight; hair is resistant and requires longer processing time.AVERAGE POROSITY: Cuticle is slightly raised; hair processes in an average amount of time.HIGH POROSITY: Cuticle is lifted; hair is overporous and takes color quickly; color tends to fade more quickly.TEST FOR POROSITY: Take strands of hairs from four different areas of head: the front hairline, the temple, the crown, and the nape. Hold strand securely with one hand, and slide thumb and forefinger of the other hand from ends to scalp. If hair feels smooth and the cuticle is compact, dense, and hard, the hair has low porosity. If it feels rough, it has average porosity. If it feels very rough and dry, or it breaks, it has high porosity.ACTIVITY: Ask for student volunteers to come forward and check each other’s hair porosity. Discuss findings.
16 Natural Hair Color Melanin in the cortex Eumelanin: gives black and brown colorPheomelanin: gives blond and red colorsMixed melanin: contains both eumelanin and pheomelaninContributing pigment: also known as undertoneNATURAL HAIR COLOR. Learning to identify natural hair color is an important step in becoming a good hair colorist. Natural hair ranges in color from black to light blond.MELANIN IN THE CORTEX:Eumelanin: Gives black and brown colors to hair.Pheomelanin: Gives blond and red colors to hair.Mixed melanin: Natural hair contains both eumelanin and pheomelanin.Contributing pigment. This is the pigment that lies under the natural hair color.The foundation of haircoloring is based on modifying this pigment with haircolor to create new pigment.
17 Level System Unit of measurement Identifies lightness or darkness Arranged on scale of 1 to 101 being darkest10 being lightestLEVEL SYSTEM: A level is the unit of measurement used to identify the lightness or darkness of a hair color. Levels are arranged on a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being the darkest and 10 being the lightest. (MNEMONIC: Think of Bo Derek from the movie 10; she is blond.)NOTE: The names of natural hair color levels may vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. The important thing is to be able to identify the degrees of lightness to darkness at each level.
18 Identifying Natural Level Take section in crown area.Match swatches.Compare strand to determine level.IDENTIFYING NATURAL LEVEL. The color wheel and haircolor swatch books are a great help in identifying natural hair color levels.1. Take a one-half inch square section in the crown area and hold it up from scalp, allowing light to pass through.2. Use swatches and find a match for the hair section. Remember, you are trying to determine depth level (darkness or lightness). Do not part or hold hair flat against scalp.3. Move swatch from scalp area along hair strand.4. Determine natural hair color level. Use natural lighting whenever possible; artificial lights affect your perception of natural hair color; fluorescent light drastically distorts color.5. GRAY HAIR: Normally associated with aging; heredity is also a factor. Gray hair requires special attention in formulating haircolor.
19 Gray HairThe loss of pigment increases with age. Most people retain a certain percentage of pigmented hair. Gray hair can be solid or blended and requires special attention during haircoloring.
21 Color TheoryColor is the property of objects that depends on the light they reflect. It is perceived as red, green, blue, or other shades.Base color is the predominant tone of a color.
22 Law of ColorA system for understanding color relationships. When combining colors, you will always get the same result from the same combination.Equal parts of red and blue make violet.Equal parts of blue and yellow make green.Equal parts of red and yellow make orange.
23 Primary Colors Blue Red Yellow PRIMARY COLORS: Pure colors that cannot be achieved from a mixture. The three primary colors are blue, red, and yellow.BLUE: Strongest of primary colors and the only cool primary color. It brings depth or darkness to colors when it is added.Predominance of blue: Cool-toned colors.RED: The medium primary color. Red added to blue-based colors will cause them to appear lighter. Red added to yellow colors will cause them to become darker.Predominance of red: Warm-toned colors.YELLOW: The faintest primary color. When added to other colors, the resulting color is lighter and brighter in appearance.BLACK: When all three colors are present in equal proportions, the resulting color is black.BROWN: Neutral brown has primary colors in the following proportions: blue — B, red— RR, yellow— YYY.
24 Secondary Colors Green Orange Violet SECONDARY COLORS: Color obtained by mixing equal parts of two primary colors.GREEN: An equal combination of blue and yellow.ORANGE: An equal combination of red and yellow.VIOLET: An equal combination of blue and red.See Figure 21–10.
25 Tertiary Colors Blue-green Blue-violet Red-orange Yellow-orange Yellow-greenTERTIARY COLORS: Intermediate colors achieved by mixing a secondary color with its neighboring primary color on the color wheel in equal amounts Tertiary colors: blue-green, blue-violet, red-orange, yellow-orange, and yellow-green.ACTIVITY: Using clay, have the students complete the activity found in the textbook. Have students mix clay of primary colors to create secondary and tertiary colors. See Figure 21– 12.
26 Complementary Colors Blue and orange Red and green Yellow and violet COMPLEMENTARY COLORS: A primary and a secondary color positioned opposite each other on the color wheel. Complementary colors: blue and orange, red and green, yellow and violet.Complementary colors neutralize each other. Understanding complementary colors helps you make haircolor decisions to accomplish your desired goal. See Figure 21–13.
27 Tone or Hue Tone or hue: balance of color Warm: golden, orange, red, yellowCool: blue, green, violetIntensity: strength of color toneTONE OR HUE: The balance of color. Tone is used to describe the warmth or coolness of a color.Warm tones: Lighter than their actual level. Are golden, orange, red, and yellow. Described as auburn, amber, copper, strawberry, and bronze.Cool tones: Deeper than their actual level. Are blue, green, and violet. Described as smoky or ash.Intensity: The strength of a color tone. Described as mild, medium, or strong. Strawberry blond, copper brown, and bright orange are various intensities of red shades.NOTE: The information on intensity is not found in the textbook.ACTIVITY: Have students complete the following activity:The missing primary color in this activity is what you would use to neutralize the unwanted tone. Name the missing primary color for each tone.TONE MISSING PRIMARY COLOROrange ?Green ?Violet ?ANSWERS: To neutralize orange, use blue; to neutralize green, use red; to neutralize violet, use yellow.
28 Categories of Haircolor CATEGORIES OF HAIRCOLOR: All categories except temporary haircolor require a patch test to determine allergic reactions.
29 Temporary Color Does not penetrate cuticle layer Coats hair shaft Neutralizes unwanted tonesAvailable in variety of colors and productsTEMPORARY COLORPigment molecules of are large and do not penetrate the cuticle layer.Coats the hair shaft only; creates a physical change in the hair, not a chemical change.Good for neutralizing unwanted tones.Available in a variety of colors and products.– Color rinses: Applied with each shampoo to add color.– Colored mousses and gels: Used for slight color and for dramatic effects.– Hair mascara: Used for dramatic effects.– Spray-on haircolor: Easy to apply; used for special effects.– Color-enhancing shampoos: Used to brighten and to impart slight color, as well as to eliminate unwanted tones.
30 Traditional Semipermanent Lasts through several shampoosPenetrates hair shaft; stains cuticle layerFades with each shampooNon-oxidationUsed out of bottle; requires patch testTRADITIONAL SEMIPERMANENT HAIRCOLORLasts through six to eight shampoos, depending upon the hair’s porosity; does not require maintenance of new growth.Pigment molecules of are smaller. They partially penetrate the hair shaft and stain the cuticle layer.Diffuses out of hair during shampooing, which causes fading with each shampoo.A non-oxidation haircolor; not mixed with peroxide and only deposits color.Many can be used right out of bottle but require a patch test first.
31 Demipermanents Deposits color; does not lift Requires high pH for decolorizationIdeal for:– Introducing hair color services– Blending or covering gray– Refresh faded color– Color correctionsDEMIPERMANENT HAIRCOLOR: Also called no-lift or deposit-only haircolor and haircolor glaze; referred to as semipermanent by some manufacturers. Available in gel, cream, or liquid. Requires a patch test 24 to 48 hours before application.Deposits color; does not lift.Depolarization requires high pH.Commonly known as haircolor glaze.Haircolor objectives:– Introducing haircolor services– Blending or covering gray– Refreshing faded color– Color corrections
32 Permanent HaircolorUsed to match and lighten hair, and to cover gray hairContains ammonia, oxidative tints, and peroxideContains aniline derivativesCombine with H2O2 to form larger moleculesRemoves natural pigment while adding artificial colorBest to cover grayPERMANENT HAIRCOLOR: Permanent haircolor can lighten and deposit color at the same time. It is more alkaline than no-lift deposit-only haircolor. It is mixed with a developer (hydrogen peroxide) and remains in the hair shaft until the new growth of hair occurs.Used to match and lighten hair, and to cover gray hair; considered best for covering gray.Contains ammonia, oxidative tints, and peroxide; requires a patch test.Contains aniline derivatives, uncolored dye precursors that are very small compounds that can diffuse into the hair shaft.Aniline derivatives combine with H2O2 to form larger, permanent tint molecules that are trapped within the cortex and cannot be shampooed out.Simultaneously removes natural pigment while adding artificial color, resulting in a natural-looking color.Best product for covering gray hair.
34 Gradual HaircolorGradual haircolors, also known as metallic haircolors, contain metal salts that change hair color gradually by progressive buildup and exposure to air, creating a dull, metallic appearance.
35 Natural Haircolor From leaves or bark of plants No lightening Limited shade rangeProfessional products cannot be applied overNATURAL HAIRCOLOR: Also known as vegetable haircolor; includes henna.Obtained from leaves or bark of plants.No lightening action occurs. Color results tend to be weak; process is lengthy and messy.Shade ranges are limited to black, chestnut, and auburn tones.Many professional products cannot be applied over natural haircolor.
36 Hydrogen Peroxide Developers Oxidizing agents or catalystspH between 2.5 and 4.5H2O2 most commonVolumeLower volume, less liftHigher volume, greater liftHYDROGEN PEROXIDE DEVELOPERS: Developers are oxidizing agents that, when mixed with an oxidative haircolor, supply the oxygen gas necessary to develop color molecules and change hair color.Also called oxidizing agents or catalystsHave a pH between 2.5 and 4.5Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) is the most commonVolume of developers vary in strength:– Lower volume, less lift– Higher volume, greater lift– The majority of haircolor products use 10, 20, 30, or 40 volume hydrogen peroxide for proper color development; 10 volume used when less lightening is desired; 20 volume used for less lightening; 30 volume used for additional lift; 40 volume used with high-lift colors.
38 Lighteners Lighten prior to color application Lighten to a desired shadeLighten and brighten existing shadeLighten only certain parts of hairLighten dark natural or color-treated levelsLIGHTENERS: Lighteners lighten hair by dispersing, dissolving, and decolorizing the natural hair pigment. Hydrogen peroxide serves as the oxidizing agent and begins to release oxygen when mixed with lightener.Purposes of lighteners:Lighten prior to color applicationLighten to a desired shade.Lighten and brighten existing shadeLighten only certain parts of hairLighten dark natural or color-treated levels
39 The Ten Degrees of Natural Hair Decolorization TEN STAGES OF DECOLORIZATION: Hair goes through as many as ten stages of color as it lightens (See Figure 21–20). The amount of change depends on how much pigment the hair has, the strength of the lightening product, and the length of time the hair is processed.A. Dark red-brownB. Red-brownC. RedD. Red-orangeE. OrangeF. Orange-goldG. GoldH. Yellow-goldI. YellowJ. Pale yellow
40 Contributing Pigment Decolorize to appropriate level. Apply new color. CONTRIBUTING PIGMENT: The underlying pigment remaining after decolorizing is what allows the colorist to create the desired final result.1. First, hair is decolorized to the appropriate level.2. Second, new color is applied to deposit the desired color. Natural pigment remains in the hair and contributes to the artificial color that is added. Lightening to the correct stage is essential to a controlled, desired result.
41 TonersTraditional semipermanent, demipermanent, and permanent haircolor products that are used primarily on prelightened hair to achieve pale and delicate colors
42 Lifting Past Pale Yellow Hair will become mushy.Hair will lose elasticity.Hair will be harsh and brittle when dry.Hair will often suffer breakage.Hair will often not accept toner.
43 Consultation Book 15 minutes of additional time. Have client fill out record card.Conduct in proper lighting.Look at client directly.Recommend two options.Be honest.
44 Consultation (continued) Gain approval from client.Start haircolor service.Educate client regarding home-care maintenance.Complete record card.
47 Four Basic Questions What is natural level? What are desired level and tone?Are contributing pigments revealed?What colors should be mixed?
48 Deposit and Lifting Ability The combination of the shade selected and the volume of hydrogen peroxide determines the deposit and lifting ability of a haircolor.
49 Mixing Permanent Haircolor Applicator bottle: Bottle must be large enough for color and developer; mix according to manufacturer’s directions.Brush and bowl: Use nonmetallic bowl. Pour developer first, then product; blend thoroughly.
50 Double-Process Haircolor Hair Lightening – bleaching or decolorizing.Double-process high-lift coloring – two step blonding.Prelightening – applied the same as hair lightening.
51 Three Types of Lighteners Oil– On-the-scalp lightenerCreamPowder– Off-the-scalp lightenerActivators: increase lightening ability
52 On-the-Scalp Lighteners MildestAppropriate for one to two levels of liftGive some protection to hair and scalpMore control from thickenersHelp prevent overlapping
53 Powdered Off-the-Scalp Lighteners Not applied to scalpStrong enough for blondingCalled quick lightenersContain oxygen-releasing boostersDry out more quickly than other lightenersExpand and spread out during processing
54 Time Factors for Processing Darker hair has more melanin and takes longer to lighten.Porosity influences timing.Tone influences timing.Strength of product influences timing.Heat leads to quicker lightening.
55 Preliminary Strand Test Watch for discoloration or breakage.Reconditioning may be required.Increased strength or processing time may be required.Patch test is required 24 to 48 hours in advance of application.
56 Lightener Retouch and Using Toners Lighten new growth first.Proceed as for virgin lightener, except apply product to new growth only.
57 Highlighting Color some strands lighter than natural color Adds variety of lighter shades and illusion of depthDoes not contrast strongly with natural colorLight colors cause the light to advance toward the eye, to appear larger, and to make details more visible.
58 Reverse Highlighting Called lowlighting Some strands colored darker than naturalReceding, smaller appearance of dark areas
59 Cap TechniqueThis technique involves pulling clean strands of hair through a perforated cap with a thin plastic or metal hook. The number of strands pulled through the cap determines the degree of highlighting achieved.
60 Cap Strategies Lighten with powder (off-the-scalp) lightener. Begin in most resistant area.Cover while processing.Rinse thoroughly and shampoo.Towel-blot and condition.Tone if desired.
62 Foil TechniqueThis technique involves coloring selected strands by slicing or weaving out sections, placing them on foil or plastic wrap, applying lightener or permanent haircolor, and sealing them in the wrap.
63 Foil Technique (continued) Slicing: involves making a straight part at scalp, positioning a narrow 1/8-inch section of hair over foil, and applying lightener or color
64 Foil Technique (continued) Weaving: involves selecting strands that are picked up using a zigzag motion of the comb
65 BaliageBaliage: involves painting product onto clean, styled hair; also known as the free-form technique
66 Toning Highlighted and Dimensionally Colored Hair Decolorize to desired level.Consider porosity and pigmentation.Avoid affecting untreated hair.Use nonoxidative toner.Use traditional semipermanent color.Use no-lift, deposit-only demipermanent color that will not cause additional lightening.
67 Highlighting Shampoos Used when slight change in color is desiredUsed when hair processes rapidlyUsed to highlight natural color in a single application
68 Gray Hair ChallengesGray hair can turn orange if lightener is not processed long enough.
69 Yellow Discoloration Causes SmokingMedicationSun exposureSome styling aids
70 Formulating for Gray Hair Level 9 or lighter may not give complete coverage.Level 7 or darker can be used to create pastel and blond tones.For 80 percent to 100 percent natural gray, blond is more flattering than darker tones.When coloring salt and pepper to darker, color on color will make darker shade.
72 More Gray Hair Considerations Client personalityPersonal preferencesAmount and location of gray hairMORE GRAY HAIR CONSIDERATIONSIf the majority of the client’s gray hair is located in the front, that section may be 80 percent gray or unpigmented while the remainder of the hair may be only 30 percent unpigmented. This should be considered when formulating color.
73 Tips for Gray Coverage Use 20 volume developer. Process color for full 45 minutes.Add neutral to formula.If 25 percent gray, use 25 percent neutral.If 50 percent gray, use 50 percent neutral.If 75 percent gray, use 75 percent neutral.
74 Presoftening Apply presoftener to resistant area. Process 15 minutes. Refer to manufacturer’s directions.Blot presoftener off with towel.Apply final color formula.Process according to instructions.
75 Rules for Effective Color Correction Do not panic.Determine true problem.Determine cause of problem.Develop a solution.Take one step at a time.Never guarantee results.Always strand-test for accuracy.
76 Damaged Hair Characteristics Rough textureOverporous conditionBrittle and dry to touchSusceptible to breakageNo elasticitySpongy and matted when wetColor fading or absorbing too rapidly
77 Damaged Hair Treatments Use penetrating conditioner.Normalize pH with finishing rinse.Postpone further chemical services.Perform between-service conditioning.Recommend retail products for home maintenance.
78 FillersConditioner fillers: used to recondition damaged, overly porous hairColor fillers: used to equalize porosity and deposit color in one application
79 Advantages of Color Fillers Deposit color to faded endsHelp hair hold colorPrevent streaking and dull appearancePrevent off-color resultsProduce more uniform colorProduce more uniform color when coloring hair back to its natural color
80 Selecting Correct Color Filler Select to replace missing primary color.Apply directly to hair or mix with haircolor and apply to damaged ends.
81 Tips for Redheads Use red-orange base to create warm, coppery reds. Use red-violet for hot, fiery reds.Use no-lift, deposit-only color to refresh.If gray is present, add 1/2 to 1 oz of a natural color.Refresh with a soap cap to brighten color.
82 Tips for Brunettes Use cool blue base to avoid brassy tones. Do not lighten more than two levels above natural color to avoid brassy tones.Add 1 oz of natural color to cover gray.Natural highlights should be deep or caramel colored.
83 Tips for BlondsWatch out for underlying, unwanted warm tones when lightening from brown to blond.Use level 7 or darker to cover gray.Get light pale blond by double-processing.If using high lift blonds to only 5 levels, results may be warm or brassy.If highlights become too blond, add lowlights for more natural color.
84 Common Haircolor Solutions Refresh faded color: Apply a demipermanent haircolor within two levels of formula and process for up to 10 minutes.Green cast: Remove buildup and use color to neutralize unwanted color.Overall color is too light: Apply a no-lift, deposit-only color that is one to two levels darker.Overall color is too dark: Apply a haircolor remover for 10 minutes and check.
85 Tips for Restoring Blond to Natural If level 6, soften new growth with level 6 violet base and 20 volume developer. Process 20 minutes.If level 7, soften new growth with level 8 light blond-violet base and 20 volume developer. Process 20 minutes.
86 Tips for Restoring Blond to Natural (continued) Apply no-lift, deposit-only glaze with 1 oz level 8 light neutral blond and 1 oz level 9 very light blond red-orange base. Process process 20 minutes.Do not apply to new growth.Mix a no-lift, deposit-only glaze with 1-1/2 oz level 6 dark neutral blond and 1/2 oz level 4 light brown gold base.
87 Tips for Restoring Blond to Natural (continued) If level 8 light violet blond at base, use 1-1/2 oz level 8 light neutral blond with 1/2 oz level 6 dark golden blond.Apply chosen formula, starting where most overlightened.Work color through all hair.Process up to 20 minutes, checking every 5 minutes, and then reevaluate.
88 Safety Precautions Administer patch test. Do not apply if abrasions are present.Do not apply if metallic or compound tint is present.Do not brush hair prior to service.Read and follow all manufacturer’s directions.
89 Safety Precautions (continued) Use disinfected applicators and tools.Drape properly.Perform strand test.Use glass or plastic bowl or plastic bottle.Wear protective gloves.Do not let color get in eyes.
90 Safety Precautions (continued) Do not overlap product during retouch.Use mild, acid-balanced shampoo.Always wash hands before and after serving each client.
91 Practical Procedures Pre-Service Procedure Post-Service Procedure Patch Test ProcedurePreliminary Strand TestTemporary HaircolorSemipermanent HaircolorPRACTICAL PROCEDURESNOTE: Explain to students when and where the Practical Class will occur (perhaps now). Tell them that you will hand out procedure sheets for each of the following procedures and that they will follow along as you review. They will put away the procedure sheets during the actual demonstration (either performed by you or by the applicable Milady DVD to ensure consistency between demonstrations).PATCH TEST: Used to determine allergies or sensitivities to mixture. Performed 24 to 48 hours ahead of procedure; also known as a predisposition test. Formula must be the same as that to be used in the application. A negative skin test shows no sign of inflammation and indicates that the color may be safely applied; a positive result shows redness and a slight rash or welt.PRELIMINARY STRAND TEST: Used to determine how the hair will react to the color formula and how long the formula should be left on the hair. Performed after the client is prepared for color services.
92 Practical Procedures (continued) Single-Process Color on Virgin HairPermanent Single-Process Retouch with GlazeLightening Virgin HairToner ApplicationSpecial Effects Hair Coloring with Foil (Full Head)
93 Summary and Review Why do people color their hair? How does the hair’s porosity affect haircolor?How many types of melanin are found in hair? Describe each.SUMMARY AND REVIEWIn this lesson you have learned that haircoloring follows the Law of Color, a system of understanding relationships of color. The relationships have been tested over and over and have proven to be true. All colors are ultimately created from three pure, or fundamental, pigments: blue, yellow, and red. These three colors can be mixed to create secondary colors, which can then be mixed with the adjacent primary color to create tertiary colors. You have also learned how haircolor is generally classified by its ability to last. Temporary color is removed by shampooing. Semipermanant and demipermanent colors last somewhat longer than temporary haircolor and bridge the gap to permanent color. The lasting ability of any hair product will be directly affected by the hair’s porosity.Haircoloring offers you the opportunity to exercise your creative talents and bring pleasure to your clients. Enjoy your work, but most of all enjoy and appreciate learning, now and in the future. Haircolor techniques, fashions, and formulations are constantly changing. Professionals who specialize in haircoloring must constantly learn new techniques to keep up with those changes.1. Why do people color their hair?Answer: People color their hair to:Cover up or blend gray (unpigmented) hairEnhance an existing hair colorCreate a fashion statement or statement of self-expressionCorrect unwanted tones in hair caused by environmental exposure, such as sun or chlorineAccentuate a particular haircut2. How does the hair’s porosity affect haircolor?Answer: Porosity is the hair’s ability to absorb moisture. Porous hair accepts haircolor faster, which can result in a cooler tone than in less porous hair. Hair with low porosity has a tight cuticle. This hair is resistant, which means it is difficult for moisture or chemicals to penetrate, and thus requires a longer processing time for a hair color procedure.3. How many types of melanin are found in hair? Describe each.Answer: There are three types of melanin found in the hair:Eumelanin, the melanin that lends black and brown colors to hair.Pheomelanin, the melanin that gives blond and red colors to hair.Mixed melanin, a combination of natural hair color that contains both eumelanin and pheomelanin.
94 Summary and Review (continued) What are levels? What does the level system help determine when formulating haircolor?Name the primary, secondary, and tertiary colors.What is the role of tone and intensity in haircolor?Describe each category of haircolor.4. What are levels? What does the level system help determine when formulating haircolor?Answer: Levels are units of measurement used to identify the lightness or darkness (saturation, density, or concentration) of a color.The level system helps to determine the lightness or darkness of colors. Haircolor levels are arranged on a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being the darkest and 10 the lightest.5. Name the primary, secondary, and tertiary colors.Answer: The primary colors are blue, red, and yellow. The secondary colors are green, orange, and violet. The tertiary colors are blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet, red-orange, yellow-orange, and yellow-green. 6. What is the role of tone and intensity in haircolor?Answer: Tone, or tonality, is used to describe the warmth or coolness of a color. Intensity refers to the strength of a color tone and is described as soft, medium, or strong. 7. Describe each category of haircolor.Answer: Temporary haircolor: Makes only a physical, not chemical, change in the hair shaft; no patch test is required. Pigment molecules are large and do not penetrate the cuticle layer, allowing only a coating action that is removed by shampooing.Semipermanent haircolor: Formulated to last through several shampoos; pigment molecules are small enough to partially penetrate the hair shaft and stain the cuticle layer, and also small enough to diffuse out of the hair during shampooing, thus fading with each shampoo. Does not lighten the hair, so there is no significant color change.Demipermanent (deposit-only) haircolor: Similar to semipermanent haircolor but longer lasting; formulated to deposit but not lift (lighten) color; has a smaller tint molecule and is able to penetrate the hair shaft; is mixed with a low-volume developer (hydrogen peroxide). Used in color correction to blend gray hair, enhance natural color, refresh faded color, tone pre-lightened hairPermanent haircolor is designed to lighten and deposit color at the same time. The color is mixed with a developer called hydrogen peroxide, which traps the dye molecules in the hair. Permanent colors can match, lighten, deepen, or cover gray hair.
95 Summary and Review (continued) How does hydrogen peroxide developer work in a haircolor formula?What are the four key questions to ask when formulating a haircolor?Why is a patch test useful in haircoloring?What is a preliminary strand test and why is it used?8. How does hydrogen peroxide developer work in a haircolor formula?Answer: Hydrogen peroxide developer is an oxidizing agent that, when mixed with an oxidation haircolor, supplies the necessary oxygen gas to develop the color molecules and create a change in natural hair color.9. What are the four key questions to ask when formulating a haircolor?Answer: The four key questions to ask when formulating a haircolor are:What is the natural level and does it include gray hair?What is the client’s desired level and tone?Are contributing pigments (undertones) to be revealed?What colors should be mixed to get the desired result?10. Why is a patch test useful in haircoloring?Answer: A patch test is used to determine whether a client has any allergies or sensitivities to the haircolor mixture.11. What is a preliminary strand test and why is it used?Answer: A preliminary strand test tells you how the hair will react to the color you have formulated and how long the color will take to process.
96 Summary and Review (continued) Explain the action of hair lighteners.What is the procedure for a virgin, single-process color service?What are the two processes involved in double-process haircoloring?Name and describe the various forms of hair lightener.What is the purpose of toner and when is it used?12. Explain the action of hair lighteners.Answer: Hair lighteners are used to create a light blond shade that is not achievable with permanent haircolor, lighten the hair prior to application of a final color, lighten hair to a particular shade, brighten and lighten an existing shade, lighten only certain parts of the hair, and lighten dark natural or color-treated levels.13. What is the procedure for a virgin, single-process color service?Answer: Single-process hair coloring is a process that lightens and colors the hair in a single application. A patch test is done prior to the service. The color is applied first where the hair is most resistant. It is applied to the midshaft, 1/2 inch from the scalp, not including the ends. Color development is checked with a strand test and then applied to the scalp area and pulled through the ends. The hair is rinsed, then shampooed and styled.14. What are the two processes involved in double-process haircoloring?Answer: The hair is first prelightened, and then a toner or deposit-only color is applied.15. Name and describe the various forms of hair lightener.Answer: Oil, cream, and powder are three forms of hair lightener. Oil and cream lighteners (and some powders) are considered on-the-scalp lighteners, which can be used directly on the scalp. Most powder lighteners are referred to as off-the-scalp lighteners, which cannot be used directly on the scalp.16. What is the purpose of toner and when is it used?Answer: A toner is a hair-coloring product used primarily on prelightened hair to achieve pale, delicate colors.
97 Summary and Review (continued) What are three commonly used methods for highlighting? Describe each.List seven tips for achieving gray coverage.List the rules of color correction.List five safety precautions to follow during haircoloring.17. What are three commonly used methods for highlighting? Describe each.Answer: The methods are cap, foil, and baliage, or free-form, techniques.The cap technique involves pulling clean, dry strands of hair through a perforated cap with a thin plastic or metal hook, then lightening and/or toning those strands.The foil technique involves coloring selected strands of hair by slicing or weaving out sections of hair, placing them on foil or plastic wrap, applying lightener or color, and sealing them in the foil or plastic wrap.The baliage, or free-form, technique involves the painting of a lightener (usually a powdered off-the-scalp lightener) directly onto clean, styled hair. 18. List seven tips for achieving gray coverage.Answer: Seven tips for achieving gray coverage are:Formulate at a level 7 medium blond (deeper for best gray coverage).Use 20-volume developer.Process color for a full 45 minutes.Add neutral base color or natural to the formula:– If 25 percent gray is present, use 25 percent neutral base color.– If 50 percent gray is present, use 50 percent neutral base color.– If 75 percent gray is present, use 75 percent neutral base color.19. List the rules of color correction.Answer: The rues of color correction are:Do not panic. Remain calm.Determine the nature of the problem.Determine what caused the problem.Develop a solution.Always take one step at a time.Never guarantee an exact result.Always strand-test for accuracy.20. List at least five safety precautions to follow during haircoloring.Answer:Conduct a patch test 24 hours prior to any application of an aniline derivative. Apply a tint only if the patch test is negative.Do not apply tint if abrasions are present.Do not apply tint if a metallic or compound tint is present.Do not brush the hair prior to applying color.Always read and follow all of the manufacturer’s directions.Use cleaned and disinfected applicator bottles, brushes, combs, and towels.Protect your client’s clothing with proper draping.Perform a strand test for color, breakage, and/or discoloration.Use an applicator bottle or bowl (glass or plastic) for mixing the tint.Do not mix tint before you are ready to use it; discard leftover tint.Wear gloves to protect your hands.Do not permit the color to come in contact with the client’s eyes.Do not overlap during a tint retouch.Use a mild shampoo. An alkaline or harsh shampoo will strip the color.Always wash hands before and after serving a client.
98 You have completed one unit of study toward course completion. Congratulations!You have completed one unit of study toward course completion.
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