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Chapter 15 Scalp Care, Shampooing, and Conditioning

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1 Chapter 15 Scalp Care, Shampooing, and Conditioning

2 “Ability is what you’re capable of doing
“Ability is what you’re capable of doing. Motivation determines what you do. Attitude determines how well you do it.” – Lou Holtz

3 Objectives Explain the two most important requirements for scalp care.
Describe the benefits of scalp massage. Know how to treat scalp and hair that are dry, oily, or dandruff ridden. Explain the role of hair brushing to a healthy scalp.

4 Objectives (continued)
Discuss the uses and benefits of the various types of shampoo. Discuss the uses and benefits of the various types of conditioner. Demonstrate the appropriate draping for a basic shampoo and draping for a chemical service. Demonstrate the Three-Part Procedure and explain why it is useful. LEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?) Clients of the cosmetology profession knowingly and willingly invite the cosmetologist to invade their personal “comfort zone” on a regular basis. They place a great deal of confidence and trust in the cosmetologist when doing so. Therefore, it is extremely important never to betray that trust. The ability to provide a thorough and relaxing shampoo is essential to salon success. A good shampoo lays the foundation for a solid client relationship and prepares the hair for the service you are about to provide. The client may use this initial experience to evaluate the professional expertise of the stylist. If the client enjoys the shampoo, he or she has much more confidence in the stylist’s ability and may request even more services as a result. Although shampooing is given primarily to cleanse the hair and scalp, it should be a pleasurable and relaxing experience that will ensure return visits to the salon by the client. Proper scalp and hair analysis is important to determine what type of shampoo and the frequency shampooing is needed. An unclean scalp and dirty hair offer a breeding place for disease-producing bacteria, which can lead to scalp disorders. The comfort and protection of the client also must always be considered when giving any professional service. Taking care to protect the skin and clothing of the client will further enhance the client’s confidence in your abilities as a professional. In fact, history proves that clients will return to a professional who has made them feel comfortable and treated them well, even if they were not 100 percent satisfied with the results of the service. Thus, the safety and comfort of your clients combined with a thorough and relaxing shampoo can be enormously beneficial in building your business.

5 Scalp Care and Massage The two basic requirements for a healthy scalp are cleanliness and stimulation. Treatments should be given with a continuous, even motion that stimulates scalp and relaxes client.

6 Scalp Treatments Given before shampoo Given during shampoo
Relaxation or treatment: only difference is which products used Contraindications: medical conditions that may prohibit the service SCALP TREATMENTS Scalp treatments and massage may be performed either: Before a shampoo if a scalp condition is apparent During the shampoo (once conditioner has been applied to the hair) for relaxation The difference between a relaxation and a treatment massage is the products you use. Be sure to follow all of the manufacturer’s directions whenever a special scalp treatment product is used. For simple relaxation, almost any conditioner may be used to create a very enjoyable experience for your client. Extra services like this will keep your clients coming back to you. Knowing the muscles, the location of blood vessels, and the nerve points of the scalp and neck will help guide you to those areas most likely to benefit from massage movements.

7 Normal Hair and Scalp Treatment
Purpose: to maintain scalp and hair in a clean and healthy condition Perform treatment only after full hair and scalp examination. NOTE: Inform students that specific procedures will be covered in detail during the practical class and demonstration. Explain that you are doing an overview of various procedures and theories now and that hands-on learning will come later.

8 Dry Hair and Scalp Treatment
Used if natural oil is deficient Treatment products: contain moisturizing and emollient ingredients Avoid strong soaps, greasy preparations, lotions with high alcohol content. Use a scalp steamer. DRY HAIR AND SCALP TREATMENT A dry hair and scalp treatment should be used when there is a deficiency of natural oil on the scalp and hair. Select scalp preparations containing moisturizing and emollient ingredients. Avoid the use of strong soaps, preparations containing a mineral- or sulfonated-oil base, greasy preparations, or lotions with high alcohol content. During a dry hair and scalp treatment, a scalp steamer, which resembles a hooded dryer, is used.

9 Oily Hair and Scalp Treatment
Cause: overactive sebaceous glands Purpose: to flush out excess sebum through gentle pressing or squeezing OILY HAIR AND SCALP TREATMENT Excessive oiliness is caused by overactive sebaceous glands. Manipulate the scalp and knead it to increase blood circulation to the surface. Any hardened sebum in the pores of the scalp will be removed with gentle pressing or squeezing. To normalize the function of these glands, excess sebum should be flushed out with each treatment.

10 Antidandruff Treatment
Cause: a fungus called malassezia Purpose: to suppress the growth of malassezia and loosen scalp scales ANTIDANDRUFF TREATMENT Dandruff is the result of a fungus called malassezia. Antidandruff shampoos, conditioners, and topical lotions contain antifungal agents that control dandruff by suppressing the growth of malassezia. Moisturizing salon treatments also soften and loosen scalp scales that stick to the scalp in crusts. Because of the ability of fungus to resist treatment, additional salon treatments and the frequent use of antidandruff home care should be recommended.

11 Brushing the Hair Correct brushing stimulates the blood circulation of the scalp; helps remove dust, dirt, and hair-spray buildup; and gives added shine. BRUSHING THE HAIR You should include a thorough hair brushing as part of every shampoo and scalp treatment, regardless of whether your client’s hair and scalp are dry or oily. Brushing also allows the stylist to examine the scalp for abrasions and infections.

12 Hair-Brushing Exceptions
Avoid before chemical service Avoid if scalp is irritated Avoid before haircolor procedures HAIR-BRUSHING EXCEPTIONS The two exceptions to hair brushing are as follows: Do not brush or irritate the scalp before giving a chemical service. Do not brush if the scalp is irritated. Brushing, massaging, or shampooing the scalp before a service is not recommended for: Single-process and double-process haircolor Highlighting Most chemical relaxers (follow manufacturer's directions) Some temporary and semipermanent haircolor (follow manufacturer's directions) If shampooing is recommended, shampoo gently to avoid scalp irritation.

13 Hairbrushes Natural bristles: most highly recommended to clean and add luster to the hair Nylon bristles: shiny, smooth, and more suitable for hairstyling

14 Scalp Analysis Dry, dehydrated hair Thinning of the hair
Excessive hair in sink Dry, tight scalp Oily scalp Abnormal flaking on scalp Open wounds or scalp irritations Scalp disorders or disease Tick or lice infestation SCALP ANALYSIS Shampooing provides the perfect opportunity to analyze the client’s hair and scalp. Always check for the listed conditions. Salon assistants should always alert the stylist about any hair or scalp conditions, including suspected diseases or disorders. A client with an infectious disease is never to be treated in the salon and should be referred to a physician. The primary purpose of a shampoo is to cleanse the hair and scalp prior to a service. This is also the time to educate the client about the importance of using quality hair care products at home. To be effective, a shampoo must remove all dirt, oils, cosmetics, and skin debris without adversely affecting either the scalp or hair. The scalp and hair need to be cleansed regularly to combat the accumulation of oils and perspiration that mix with the natural scales and dirt to create a breeding ground for disease-producing bacteria. Hair should only be shampooed as often as necessary. Excessive shampooing strips the hair of its protective oil (sebum) that, in small amounts, seals and protects the hair’s cuticle. As a general rule, oily hair needs to be shampooed more often than normal or dry hair.

15 Shampoo Selection As a professional, you must become skilled at selecting shampoos that support the health of the hair, whether the hair is natural, color-treated, fine and limp, or coarse and wiry. Product knowledge is critical (read labels).

16 Selection Considerations
Hair type: dry, oily, normal, chemically treated Hair condition: overprocessed, chemically treated, damaged by harsh products or improper care, exposure to elements Home maintenance pH-balanced shampoos SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS Select a shampoo according to the condition of the client's hair and scalp. Hair can usually be characterized as oily, dry, normal, or chemically treated. Your client might even have an oily scalp with dry hair, possibly due to overprocessing. When selecting the shampoo to be used, be aware of whether or not the hair has been chemically treated. Chemically treated hair (hair that has been lightened, colored, permed, or chemically relaxed) and hair that has been abused by the use of harsh shampoos or damaged by improper care and exposure to the elements (wind, sun, cold, or heat) may require a product that is less harsh and more conditioning than a product suitable for virgin hair (hair that has not been chemically treated).

17 Potential Hydrogen (pH)
The small p represents a quantity. The capital H represents the hydrogen ion. The amount of hydrogen in a solution is measured on a logarithmic scale ranging from 1 to 14.

18 Potential Hydrogen (pH) (continued)
Acid: 0 to 6.9 pH Neutral: 7.0 pH Alkaline: 7.1 to 14 pH pH-balanced shampoos: 4.5 to 5.5 pH POTENTIAL HYDROGEN (pH) Understanding pH levels will help you select the proper shampoo for your client. The amount of hydrogen in a solution, which determines whether it is alkaline or acid, is measured on a pH scale that has a range from 0 to 14. The pH of a neutral solution, one which is neither acidic nor alkaline, is 7. A shampoo that is acidic will have a pH ranging from 0 to 6.9; a shampoo that is alkaline will have a pH rating of 7.1 or higher. The more alkaline the shampoo, the stronger and harsher it is. A high-pH shampoo can leave the hair dry, brittle, and porous. A high-pH shampoo can cause fading in color-treated hair. A slightly acidic shampoo more closely matches the ideal pH of hair. A pH-balanced shampoo is balanced to the pH of skin and hair (4.5 to 5.5). Experts believe that an acid pH of 4.5 to 5.5 will prevent excessive dryness and hair damage during the cleansing process. Many shampoos are pH balanced by the addition of citric, lactic, or phosphoric acid. Shampoos that are pH balanced help to close the hair cuticle and are recommended for hair that has been color treated or lightened. In the 1960s, beauty pioneer Jheri Redding revolutionized the salon industry by being the first to market pH-balanced shampoos. He went around the country staging demonstrations that showed how acidic shampoos (pH below 7) outperformed alkaline shampoos. When Redding dipped a piece of litmus paper into his shampoo, it would come up a glowing orange, pink, or gold. The litmus test on his competitors’ products would come up a murky purple or black. Most cosmetic chemists today agree that a low pH is good for all hair, especially chemically treated hair.

19 The Chemistry of Water Purification Sedimentation Filtration
Chlorine added Boiling Distillation Soft water Hard water THE CHEMISTRY OF WATER. Water is the universal solvent, meaning it is capable of dissolving more substances than any other solvent. PURIFICATION: Fresh water from lakes and streams must be purified for domestic use. Sedimentation: A treatment that causes matter to sink to the bottom. Filtration: Passing through a porous substance, such as filter paper or charcoal. The process removes suspended clay, sand, and organic material. Chlorine added: Small amounts are added to kill bacteria. Boiling: 212 degrees Fahrenheit or 100 degrees Celsius. Destroys microbes. Distillation: The process of heating water so it becomes a vapor, then condensing the vapor so that it collects as a liquid. This process is used frequently in the manufacture of cosmetics. SOFT WATER: Rain water or chemically softened water. It contains small amounts of minerals and allows soap and shampoo to lather freely. HARD WATER: Contains minerals that lessen the ability of soap or shampoo to lather readily. Can be softened by a chemical process. ACTIVITY: Ask students to share their experiences with hard and soft water. For example, ask them if they have ever taken a shower in extremely softened water, when it felt as if they couldn't get the soap off or the shampoo out of their hair. Or, conversely, maybe they have showered in water so hard that they couldn’t seem to get the soap or shampoo to lather at all.

20 The Chemistry of Shampoos (continued)
Water Surfactant Molecule (surface active agent) – Hydrophilic end THE CHEMISTRY OF SHAMPOOS. An understanding of the chemical ingredients used in shampoos will help you prescribe the best product for your clients. WATER: The main ingredient, but purified or deionized. Water is usually listed first on product labels because it represents the largest percentage of all ingredients. All others are listed in descending order. SURFACTANT MOLECULE: Surfactant and detergent are synonymous, meaning “cleansing, or surface active, agent.” Hydrophilic end: This is the “head” end of a shampoo molecule and is water attracting.

21 The Chemistry of Shampoos (continued)
– Lipophilic end Lipophilic end: This is the “tail” end of a shampoo molecule and is oil attracting. Since both ends are working during a shampoo, a push–pull effect is created that causes the oils, dirt, and deposits to form little balls that can be lifted off in the water and rinsed from the hair.

22 Types of Shampoos pH-balanced Conditioning Medicated Clarifying
Balancing Dry or powder Color-enhancing For hairpieces and wigs TYPES OF SHAMPOOS. Shampoo products represent the highest dollar expenditure in hair care products. pH-balanced: Has a pH of 4.5 to 5.5, the same as hair. By adding citric, lactic, or phosphoric acid to any shampoo, it can become acid balanced. Consumer’s Union chemists believe that a pH of 4.5 to 5.5 is essential to prevent excessive dryness and hair damage. A pH between 5 and 8 is too small to affect the hair and scalp due to the limited time of actual application. Conditioning: Also known as moisturizing. Designed to make hair smooth and shiny, improve manageability, and avoid damage to chemically treated hair. Protein and biotin are conditioning agents that restore moisture and elasticity, strengthen hair shaft, and add volume. They are also nonstripping. Medicated: Reduce dandruff or relieve scalp conditions. Some require a prescription. Clarifying: Contain an acidic ingredient like cider vinegar to cut through product buildup. They increase shine; shouldn’t be used regularly, but as needed. Balancing: Wash away excess oiliness while keeping hair from drying out. Dry or powder: Used when client’s health prevents a wet shampoo. They cleanse without the use of soap and water. Powder picks up dirt and oils as you brush or comb through the hair. Color-enhancing: The shampoo surfactant is combined with basic dyes. Similar to temporary rinses; removed with plain shampooing; used to brighten, to add some slight color, and to eliminate unwanted color tones. For hairpieces and wigs: Special solutions are formulated for these. See Chapter 17.

23 A Great Shampoo Experience
Massage for client preference. Adjust water temperature for client choice. Don’t wet client’s face. Double-check nape area. Do not drench towel around neck. Blot hair, not face. Give relaxation massage. A GREAT SMAMPOO EXPERIENCE The scalp is always massaged according to the preference of the client. Some clients have a sensitive scalp and want a very light massage, while others want a firm massage. In order to service every client to the best of your ability, ask about massage preferences before beginning the procedure. Always ask the client if the water feels too warm, too cool, or just right; adjust the temperature accordingly. Do not allow the water or your hands to touch a woman's face during the shampoo. Allowing the client’s face to get wet may remove part of her base makeup and can turn an otherwise great shampoo into an unpleasant experience. It is easy to miss the nape of the neck when shampooing and rinsing, so you should always double-check this area before escorting the client to your station. Throughout the shampoo, be very careful not to drench the towel that is draped around the client’s neck. If the towel becomes damp, replace it with a clean, dry towel before leaving the shampoo area. When blotting the hair after the shampoo, be careful once again not to touch the face. If you remove part of your client’s makeup, she may feel self-conscious during her entire visit. As you learn to give a great shampoo, you should also learn how to give a great relaxation massage. You may hear your clients say, “Don't stop, you can do that for hours,” every time they come to you. Even though you may hear this five times a day, it is always satisfying to know that you are making your clients feel good!

24 Shampooing and Retailing
Use the shampoo time to better establish your professional relationship with the client and promote quality products for at-home use. During the shampoo give clients information about what you are doing and why.

25 Understanding Conditioners
Deposit protein and moisturizer Restore strength and give body Protect against breakage Types Rinse-out Treatment or repair Leave-in UNDERSTANDING CONDITIONERS. Conditioners are special chemical agents applied to the hair to deposit protein or moisturizer, to help restore its strength and give it body, or to protect against possible breakage. They are a temporary “fix” and cannot “heal” damaged hair or improve the quality of new hair growth. Remember: Heredity, health, and diet control the texture and structure of hair.

26 Formulation Silicone and moisture-binding humectants Emollients
Synthetic polymers Proteins FORMULATION Most conditioners contain silicone which, along with moisture-binding humectants, is a substance that absorbs moisture or promotes the retention of moisture. Silicone reflects light and makes the hair appear shiny. Other ingredients such as emollients and synthetic polymers reduce frizz or bulk up the hair. Most treatments and leave-ins contain proteins, which penetrate the cortex and reinforce the hair shaft from within, temporarily reconstructing the hair. The cuticle is made up of overlapping scales; a healthy cuticle lies down smoothly and reflects light, giving the appearance of shiny hair. Conditioners smooth the cuticle and coat the hair shaft to achieve the same effect, as do detangling rinses or cream rinses, although they are not as heavy. The cortex makes up 90 percent of the hair strand; it can be penetrated with protein conditioners. Moisturizing conditioners also contain humectants, which attract moisture from the air and are absorbed into the cortex.

27 Other Conditioning Agents
Spray-on thermal protectors Scalp conditioners Medicated scalp lotions Scalp astringent lotions OTHER CONDITIONING AGENTS Spray-on thermal protectors: Applied prior to thermal service. Scalp conditioners: Usually a cream base used to soften and improve scalp health. Medicated scalp lotions: Promote healing of the scalp. Scalp astringent lotions: Used to remove oil accumulation from scalp; used after a scalp treatment and before styling. ACTIVITY: Have students refer to Table 15–1 in their textbook. Conduct a class discussion about the three hair types and textures listed, and the various recommended treatments.

28 Deep-Conditioning Treatments
Also known as masks or conditioning packs Mixtures of concentrated protein in a heavy cream base of a moisturizer Penetrate the cuticle layer Used when an equal degree of moisturizing and protein is required

29 Draping Client must be properly draped for each service.
Shampoo (wet) draping: two terry towels used, one under cape and one over; replaced with neck strip and cape Chemical-service draping: two terry towels used, one under cape and one over, which remain during service

30 Three-Part Procedure Pre-service: preparation
Service: practical service on client Post-service: caring for client after service and clean-up THREE-PART PROCEDURE It is easier to keep track of what you are doing, to remain organized, and to give consistent service if you break your hair care procedures into three individual parts. The Three-Part Procedure consists of: 1) pre-service; 2) service; and 3) post-service. 1. PRE-SERVICE: The pre-service procedure is an organized step-by-step plan for the cleaning and disinfecting of your tools, implements, and materials; for setting up your station; and for meeting, greeting, and escorting your client to your service area. 2. SERVICE: The service procedure is an organized step-by-step plan for accomplishing the actual service the client has requested, such as a shampoo, haircut, or haircoloring. 3. POST-SERVICE: The post-service procedure is an organized step-by-step plan for caring for your client after the procedure has been completed. It consists of helping your client through the scheduling and payment process of the salon and preparing for the next client.

31 Practical Class Pre-Service Procedure Post-Service Procedure
Normal Hair and Scalp Treatment Dry Hair and Scalp Treatment Oily Hair and Scalp Treatment Antidandruff Treatment NOTE: Explain when and where the practical procedures will be presented. Hand out applicable procedure sheets from LP 15.0.

32 Practical Class (continued)
Brushing the Hair Draping for a Shampoo Draping for a Chemical Service Basic Shampoo and Conditioning Scalp Massage

33 Summary and Review What are the two most important requirements for scalp care? How should scalp and hair that are dry, oily, or with dandruff be treated? What are the benefits of scalp massage? SUMMARY AND REVIEW Cleanliness is the key to attractive hair. As a cosmetology professional, you will need to be able to analyze hair type and hair products to determine the best shampoo for your client. You should always follow the manufacturer’s directions when using any product, including shampoos. Remember that shampooing is an opportunity for you to put clients at ease and make them feel comfortable about the service they are about to receive. Take care to be gentle when shampooing prior to a chemical service. Choose the correct shampoo for the hair type. A quality shampoo builds the foundation for successful salon services and for continued retail sales. 1. What are the two most important requirements for scalp care? Answer: The two basic requirements for a healthy scalp are cleanliness and stimulation. 2. How should scalp and hair that are dry, oily, or with dandruff be treated? Answer: For dry hair and scalp, use products containing moisturizing and emollient ingredients and apply them to the scalp; use the aid of a scalp steamer or hooded dryer. For oily hair and scalp, the procedure should begin with a scalp manipulation and kneading to increase blood circulation to the surface and so that any hardened sebum in the pores of the scalp can be removed with gentle pressing or squeezing. To normalize the function of these glands, excess sebum should be flushed out with the use of specialty products for this purpose. Since dandruff is the result of a fungus, antidandruff shampoos and conditioners and topical lotions that contain antifungal agents should be used to control dandruff by suppressing the growth of the fungus. Moisturizing salon treatments may also be used to soften and loosen scalp scales that stick to the scalp in crusts. 3. What are the benefits of scalp massage? Answer: Scalp massage helps to relax the client; keep the scalp in a healthy condition; increase natural oil production on the scalp if the client has a dry scalp; increase blood circulation; and remove any hardened sebum in the pores of the scalp to help normalize the production of sebum in an oily scalp.

34 Summary and Review (continued)
Why is hair brushing important for maintaining a healthy scalp and hair? What shampoo is appropriate for use on dandruff? On product buildup? On damaged hair? What is the action of conditioner on hair? 4. Why is hair brushing important for maintaining a healthy scalp and hair? Answer: Hair brushing is important for maintaining the health of the scalp and hair because it stimulates the blood circulation to the scalp and helps remove tangles, dust, dirt, and product buildup. 5. What shampoo is appropriate for use on dandruff? On product buildup? On damaged hair? Answer: The shampoo most appropriate for use on dandruff is a medicated or antidandruff shampoo that contains an antifungal agent. The shampoo most appropriate for use on product buildup is a clarifying shampoo. The shampoo most appropriate for use on damaged hair is a conditioning or moisturizing shampoo. 6. What is the action of conditioner on hair? Answer: Conditioners deposit protein or moisturizer to help restore the hair’s strength, give it body, and protect it against possible breakage.

35 You have completed one unit of study toward course completion.
Congratulations! You have completed one unit of study toward course completion.

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