2Why People Color Their Hair Cover up or blend gray (unpigmented) hair.Enhance an existing haircolor.Create a fashion statement or statement of self-expression.Correct unwanted tones in hair caused by environmental exposure such as sun or chlorine.Accentuate a haircut.
3Hair Facts Hair Structure Three major components:Cuticle: Outermost layer of hair.Cortex: Middle layer, gives hair the majority of its strength and elasticity.Medulla: Innermost layer of hair.
4Hair Facts Texture Fine hair takes color faster and can look darker. Medium-textured hair has an average reaction to haircolor.Coarse-textured hair can take longer to process.
5Hair Facts Density/Porosity Density must be taken into account when applying haircolor to ensure proper coverage.Low porosity (resistant): Cuticle is tight.Average porosity: Cuticle is slightly raised.High porosity: Cuticle is lifted.
6Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone Eumelanin: Melanin that lends black and brown colors to hair.Mixed melanin: Combination of natural hair color that contains both pheomelanin and eumelanin.Pheomelanin: Melanin that gives blond and red colors to hair.Contributing pigment: Also undertone; varying degrees of warmth exposed during a permanent color or lightening process.
7Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone The Level System Level: Unit of measurement used to identify lightness or darkness of a color.Level system: Used by colorists to determine lightness or darkness of a hair color.
8Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone Identifying Natural Level First step in performing a haircolor service.Most valuable tool is the color wheel.Haircolor swatch books also provide a visual representation.
9Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone Gray Hair Loss of pigment increases as a person ages, but few people become completely gray.Gray hair requires special attention in formulating haircolor.
10Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone Color Theory Base color: Predominant tone of a color.Law of color: System for understanding color relationships.Primary colorsSecondary colorsTertiary colorsComplementary colors
11Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone Tone or Hue of Color Tone: Also hue; balance of color.The tone or hue answers the question of which color to use based on the client’s desired results.Tones can be described as warm, cool, or neutral.Intensity: Refers to strength of a color.
12Types of HaircolorHaircoloring products generally fall into two categories: nonoxidative and oxidative.Classifications of oxidative haircolor are demipermanent and permanent.
13Types of Haircolor Temporary Haircolor Temporary haircolor: Nonpermanent color whose large pigment molecules prevent penetration of the cuticle layer, allowing only a coating action that may be removed by shampooing.
14Types of Haircolor Semipermanent Haircolor Semipermanent haircolor: No-lift deposit-only nonoxidation haircolor.Demipermanent haircolor: Also no-lift deposit-only color; formulated to deposit but not lighten color.
15Types of Haircolor Permanent Haircolor Permanent haircolors: Lighten and deposit color at the same time in a single process.Soap cap: Equal parts prepared permanent color mixture and shampoo used during last five minutes of a haircolor service.
16Types of Haircolor Natural and Metallic Haircolors Natural haircolors: Also vegetable haircolors; colors obtained from the leaves or bark of plants.Color result tends to be weak.Process tends to be lengthy and messy.Metallic haircolors: Also gradual haircolors; haircolors containing metal salts that change hair color gradually by progressive buildup and exposure to air, creating a dull, metallic appearance.
17Types of Haircolor Hydrogen Peroxide Developers Hydrogen peroxide developer: Oxidizing agent that supplies necessary oxygen gas to develop color molecules and create a change in natural hair color.Developers: Also oxidizing agents or catalysts; have a pH between 2.5 and 4.5.Volume: Measures concentration and strength of hydrogen peroxide.
18Types of Haircolor Lighteners Lighteners: Chemical compounds that lighten hair by dispersing, dissolving, and decolorizing the natural hair pigment.
19Consultation Release Statement Haircolor consultation is the most critical part of the color service.Release statement: Explains to clients that there is a risk involved in any chemical service.
20Haircolor Formulation Mixing Permanent Colors/Patch Test Permanent color methods:ApplicatorBrush and bowlPatch test: Also predisposition test; test for identifying possible allergy in a client.
21Haircolor Applications Preliminary Strand Test/Temporary Colors Strand test: Determines how hair will react to color formula and how long formula should be left on hair.Many methods of applying a temporary color, depending on the product used.Apply colored gels, mousses, foams, or sprays at your workstation after client has been shampooed.
22Haircolor Applications Semipermanent/Demipermanent Haircolors Semipermanent colors do not contain oxidizers necessary to lift; they only deposit color and do not lighten color.Demipermanent haircolor introduces clients to a color service and enhance natural hair color in one easy step.
23Haircolor Applications Single Process/Double Process Permanent Color Single-process haircoloring: Lightens and deposits color in a single application.Virgin application: Refers to first time hair is colored.Hair lightening: Also bleaching or decolorizing; chemical process of diffusion of natural hair color pigment or artificial haircolor from hair.Prelightening: First step of double-process haircoloring.
24Using Lighteners On-the-Scalp/Powdered Off-the-Scalp Lighteners On-the-scalp lighteners: Lighteners used directly on scalp by mixing lightener with activators.Off-the-scalp lighteners: Also quick lighteners; powdered lighteners that cannot be used directly on the scalp.
25Using Lighteners Time Factors Darker hair takes longer to lighten.Porous hair lightens faster than nonporous.More red in natural color makes pale blond more difficult to achieve.Strength of lightening product affects the speed and amount of lightening.Heat leads to faster lightening.
26Using Lighteners Preliminary Strand Test/Lightener Retouch Perform a preliminary strand test prior to lightening in order to determine processing time, condition of hair after lightening, and end results.New growth: Part of hair shaft between scalp and previously colored hair.When performing a retouch, always lighten the new growth first.
27Using Toners Toner Application Toners require a double-process application:Application of lightenerApplication of tonerAdminister a patch test for allergies or other sensitivities twenty-four to forty-eight hours before each toner application.
28Special Effects Haircoloring Special effects haircoloring: Refers to any technique that involves partial lightening or coloring.HighlightingReverse highlighting (lowlighting)
29Special Effects Haircoloring Cap Technique/Foil Technique SlicingWeaving
30Special Effects Haircoloring Baliage Technique/Highlighting Shampoos Baliage (free-form) techniqueHighlighting shampoo colors: Prepared by combining permanent haircolor, hydrogen peroxide, and shampoo.
31Special Challenges in Haircolor/Corrective Solutions/Gray Hair Gray hair accepts the level of the color applied.Formulate at a Level 7 medium-blond and deeper for best gray coverage.
32Special Challenges in Haircolor/Corrective Solutions/Rules for Effective Color Correction/Damaged HairRules:Remain calm.Determine the nature of the problem.Determine what caused the problem.Develop a solution.Always take one step at a time.Never guarantee an exact result.Always strand test for accuracy.Damaged hair:Rough textureOverporous conditionBrittle and dry to touchSusceptible to breakageNo elasticityBecomes spongy and matted when wetColor fades too quickly or grabs too dark
33Special Challenges in Haircolor/Corrective Solutions/Fillers Fillers: Used to equalize porosity.Conditioner fillers: Used to recondition damaged, overly porous hair.Color fillers: Equalize porosity and deposit color in one application to provide a uniform contributing pigment on prelightened hair.
34Special Challenges in Haircolor/Corrective Solutions/Haircolor Tips for Redheads/Brunettes/Blonds To create warm coppery reds, use a red-orange base color.To create hot fiery reds, use red-violet or true red colors.Brunettes:Use a cool blue base to avoid orange or brassy tones.Blonds:Double-process blonding is the best way to obtain pale blond results.
35Special Challenges in Haircolor/Corrective Solutions/Common Haircolor Solutions If hair appears dull and faded, mix a demipermanent haircolor in the same tonal family as the haircolor formula.To correct overlight haircolor, apply a demipermanent color one to two levels darker than the previous formula.Use a haircolor remover in cases where the hair is too dark because of buildup or formulation.Restoring a client’s blond hair back to its natural darker color can be tricky.
36Haircoloring Safety Precautions Perform a patch test.Check for scalp abrasions.Do not brush hair prior to applying color.Follow manufacturer’s instructions.Use proper draping.Use cleaned and disinfected applicator bottles, brushes, combs, and towels.Perform a strand test.Use an applicator bottle or bowl for color mixing.Do not mix haircolor until you are ready to use it.Wear gloves.Protect client’s eyes.Do not overlap during a haircolor retouch.Use mild shampoo.Wash hands.