Why People Color Their Hair Cover up or blend gray (unpigmented) hair. Enhance an existing haircolor. Create a fashion statement or statement of self- expression. Correct unwanted tones in hair caused by environmental exposure such as sun or chlorine. Accentuate a haircut.
Hair Facts Hair Structure Three major components: –Cuticle: Outermost layer of hair. –Cortex: Middle layer, gives hair the majority of its strength and elasticity. –Medulla: Innermost layer of hair.
Hair Facts Texture Fine hair takes color faster and can look darker. Medium-textured hair has an average reaction to haircolor. Coarse-textured hair can take longer to process.
Hair Facts Density/Porosity Density must be taken into account when applying haircolor to ensure proper coverage. Low porosity (resistant): Cuticle is tight. Average porosity: Cuticle is slightly raised. High porosity: Cuticle is lifted.
Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone Eumelanin: Melanin that lends black and brown colors to hair. Mixed melanin: Combination of natural hair color that contains both pheomelanin and eumelanin. Pheomelanin: Melanin that gives blond and red colors to hair. Contributing pigment: Also undertone; varying degrees of warmth exposed during a permanent color or lightening process.
Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone The Level System Level: Unit of measurement used to identify lightness or darkness of a color. Level system: Used by colorists to determine lightness or darkness of a hair color.
Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone Identifying Natural Level First step in performing a haircolor service. Most valuable tool is the color wheel. Haircolor swatch books also provide a visual representation.
Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone Gray Hair Loss of pigment increases as a person ages, but few people become completely gray. Gray hair requires special attention in formulating haircolor.
Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone Color Theory Base color: Predominant tone of a color. Law of color: System for understanding color relationships. –Primary colors –Secondary colors –Tertiary colors –Complementary colors
Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone Tone or Hue of Color Tone: Also hue; balance of color. The tone or hue answers the question of which color to use based on the clients desired results. Tones can be described as warm, cool, or neutral. Intensity: Refers to strength of a color.
Types of Haircolor Haircoloring products generally fall into two categories: nonoxidative and oxidative. Classifications of oxidative haircolor are demipermanent and permanent.
Types of Haircolor Temporary Haircolor Temporary haircolor: Nonpermanent color whose large pigment molecules prevent penetration of the cuticle layer, allowing only a coating action that may be removed by shampooing.
Types of Haircolor Semipermanent Haircolor Semipermanent haircolor: No-lift deposit-only nonoxidation haircolor. Demipermanent haircolor: Also no-lift deposit-only color; formulated to deposit but not lighten color.
Types of Haircolor Permanent Haircolor Permanent haircolors: Lighten and deposit color at the same time in a single process. Soap cap: Equal parts prepared permanent color mixture and shampoo used during last five minutes of a haircolor service.
Types of Haircolor Natural and Metallic Haircolors Natural haircolors: Also vegetable haircolors; colors obtained from the leaves or bark of plants. –Color result tends to be weak. –Process tends to be lengthy and messy. Metallic haircolors: Also gradual haircolors; haircolors containing metal salts that change hair color gradually by progressive buildup and exposure to air, creating a dull, metallic appearance.
Types of Haircolor Hydrogen Peroxide Developers Hydrogen peroxide developer: Oxidizing agent that supplies necessary oxygen gas to develop color molecules and create a change in natural hair color. Developers: Also oxidizing agents or catalysts; have a pH between 2.5 and 4.5. Volume: Measures concentration and strength of hydrogen peroxide.
Types of Haircolor Lighteners Lighteners: Chemical compounds that lighten hair by dispersing, dissolving, and decolorizing the natural hair pigment.
Consultation Release Statement Haircolor consultation is the most critical part of the color service. Release statement: Explains to clients that there is a risk involved in any chemical service.
Haircolor Formulation Mixing Permanent Colors/Patch Test Permanent color methods: –Applicator –Brush and bowl Patch test: Also predisposition test; test for identifying possible allergy in a client.
Haircolor Applications Preliminary Strand Test/Temporary Colors Strand test: Determines how hair will react to color formula and how long formula should be left on hair. Many methods of applying a temporary color, depending on the product used. Apply colored gels, mousses, foams, or sprays at your workstation after client has been shampooed.
Haircolor Applications Semipermanent/Demipermanent Haircolors Semipermanent colors do not contain oxidizers necessary to lift; they only deposit color and do not lighten color. Demipermanent haircolor introduces clients to a color service and enhance natural hair color in one easy step.
Haircolor Applications Single Process/Double Process Permanent Color Single-process haircoloring: Lightens and deposits color in a single application. Virgin application: Refers to first time hair is colored. Hair lightening: Also bleaching or decolorizing; chemical process of diffusion of natural hair color pigment or artificial haircolor from hair. Prelightening: First step of double-process haircoloring.
Using Lighteners On-the-Scalp/Powdered Off-the-Scalp Lighteners On-the-scalp lighteners: Lighteners used directly on scalp by mixing lightener with activators. Off-the-scalp lighteners: Also quick lighteners; powdered lighteners that cannot be used directly on the scalp.
Using Lighteners Time Factors Darker hair takes longer to lighten. Porous hair lightens faster than nonporous. More red in natural color makes pale blond more difficult to achieve. Strength of lightening product affects the speed and amount of lightening. Heat leads to faster lightening.
Using Lighteners Preliminary Strand Test/Lightener Retouch Perform a preliminary strand test prior to lightening in order to determine processing time, condition of hair after lightening, and end results. New growth: Part of hair shaft between scalp and previously colored hair. When performing a retouch, always lighten the new growth first.
Using Toners Toner Application Toners require a double-process application: –Application of lightener –Application of toner Administer a patch test for allergies or other sensitivities twenty-four to forty- eight hours before each toner application.
Special Effects Haircoloring Special effects haircoloring: Refers to any technique that involves partial lightening or coloring. –Highlighting –Reverse highlighting (lowlighting)
Special Effects Haircoloring Cap Technique/Foil Technique Cap technique Foil technique –Slicing –Weaving
Special Effects Haircoloring Baliage Technique/Highlighting Shampoos Baliage (free-form) technique Highlighting shampoo colors: Prepared by combining permanent haircolor, hydrogen peroxide, and shampoo.
Special Challenges in Haircolor/Corrective Solutions/Gray Hair Gray hair accepts the level of the color applied. Formulate at a Level 7 medium-blond and deeper for best gray coverage.
Special Challenges in Haircolor/Corrective Solutions/Rules for Effective Color Correction/Damaged Hair Rules: –Remain calm. –Determine the nature of the problem. –Determine what caused the problem. –Develop a solution. –Always take one step at a time. –Never guarantee an exact result. –Always strand test for accuracy. Damaged hair: –Rough texture –Overporous condition –Brittle and dry to touch –Susceptible to breakage –No elasticity –Becomes spongy and matted when wet –Color fades too quickly or grabs too dark
Special Challenges in Haircolor/Corrective Solutions/Fillers Fillers: Used to equalize porosity. Conditioner fillers: Used to recondition damaged, overly porous hair. Color fillers: Equalize porosity and deposit color in one application to provide a uniform contributing pigment on prelightened hair.
Special Challenges in Haircolor/Corrective Solutions/Haircolor Tips for Redheads/Brunettes/Blonds Redheads: –To create warm coppery reds, use a red-orange base color. –To create hot fiery reds, use red-violet or true red colors. Brunettes: –Use a cool blue base to avoid orange or brassy tones. Blonds: –Double-process blonding is the best way to obtain pale blond results.
Special Challenges in Haircolor/Corrective Solutions/Common Haircolor Solutions If hair appears dull and faded, mix a demipermanent haircolor in the same tonal family as the haircolor formula. To correct overlight haircolor, apply a demipermanent color one to two levels darker than the previous formula. Use a haircolor remover in cases where the hair is too dark because of buildup or formulation. Restoring a clients blond hair back to its natural darker color can be tricky.
Haircoloring Safety Precautions Perform a patch test. Check for scalp abrasions. Do not brush hair prior to applying color. Follow manufacturers instructions. Use proper draping. Use cleaned and disinfected applicator bottles, brushes, combs, and towels. Perform a strand test. Use an applicator bottle or bowl for color mixing. Do not mix haircolor until you are ready to use it. Wear gloves. Protect clients eyes. Do not overlap during a haircolor retouch. Use mild shampoo. Wash hands.