2 HAIRCOLOR SERVICES Haircoloring includes the following processes: Depositing color on natural hair colorDepositing color on previously colored hairDepositing color on hair that has been lightenedLightening and depositing color in one stepHair lightening or decolorizing involves diffusing natural or artificial color from hair.It is important for you to understand the principles of the color wheel, color theory, and color levels.
3 WHY PEOPLE COLOR THEIR HAIR To cover up gray hairTo enhance an existing hair colorTo create a fashion statement or self-expressionTo correct unwanted tonesTo accentuate a particular haircut
4 COLOR THEORY Color is a form of light energy. All the colors we can see are contained in the visible spectrum of light.
5 THE LAW OF COLOR A system of understanding color relationships Primary colorsRedYellowBlue
6 Primary ColorsPrimary Colors are colors of the purest form. They are the strongest and most influential pigments.Basic Color that cannot be created by combining other colors.The three primary colors are: Blue, Yellow, RedPrimary ColorsPrimary Colors are colors of the purest form. They are the strongest and most influential pigments. They are Basic Colors that cannot be created by combining other colors.The three primary colors are: Blue, Yellow, and RedBLUE is the darkest, most dominant
7 BLUEPrimary colors are pure or fundamental colors that cannot be achieved from a mixture.Predominance of blue results in cool-toned colors.Blue is the darkest primary color; it brings depth or darkness to colors when it is added.BLUE is the darkest, most dominant and only cool primaryWhen added to a color, BLUE will produce depthBlue has the largest molecular size and the heaviest pigment weightBLUE is the closest to the cuticle layer and the easiest to eliminate
8 RED Predominance of red results in warm-toned colors. Red is the medium primary; when added to blue-based colors, it will cause them to appear lighter; when added to yellow colors, it will cause them to become darker.RED is a medium bright, warm primary that reflects more light than any other color.It is the strongest of the warm primary colorsWhen added to a color formula, RED produces richness.RED is positioned deeper in the hair shaft making it difficult to remove.In order to eliminate, the hair shaft must be expanded wide enough (and for long enough) for oxidation to affect the RED molecule.
9 YellowYellow is the lightest primary color. When added to other colors, they become lighter and brighter in appearance.YELLOW is the lightest and brightest warm primary.It’s the color used most frequently because it creates the most highlighted dimensional effectWhen added to a color formula, YELLOW produces brightnessYELLOW is positioned deepest in the hair shaft making it the most difficult to remove.Only way to eliminate YELLOW from the hair shaft is to lighten the hair.
10 Primary ColorsWhiteBlack has all three primary colors present in equal proportions.“The presence of all colors”“Absorbs all light”White has none of the primary colors present.“Absence of all color”“Reflects all light”RED is a medium bright, warm primary that reflects more light than any other color.It is the strongest of the warm primary colors. When added to a color formula, RED produces richness.RED is positioned deeper in the hair shaft making it difficult to remove. In order to eliminate, the hair shaft must be expanded wide enough (and for long enough) for oxidation to affect the RED molecule.
11 It’s the LAW! Neutral Brown Neutral brown has primary colors in the following proportions:Blue (B)Red (RR)Yellow (YYY)It’s the LAW!BLUE is the darkest, most dominant and only cool primary.When added to a color, BLUE will produce depth.BLUE has the largest molecular size and the heaviest pigment weight.BLUE is the closest to the cuticle layer and the easiest to eliminate
13 SECONDARY COLORS Mix equal parts of two primary colors. Red + blue = violetYellow + blue = greenRed + yellow = orange
14 TERTIARY COLORSMix a secondary color with a neighboring primary color in equal amounts.blue - greenblue - violetred - violetred - orangeyellow - orangeyellow - green
15 COMPLEMENTARY COLORS These neutralize each other Understanding complementary colors helps you make haircolor decisions to accomplish your desired goal.blue and orangered and greenyellow and violet
16 Secondary ColorsSecondary Colors are made by mixing equal parts of primary colors.ORANGE comes from mixing RED and YELLOW and is the strongest and only warm SecondaryGREEN comes from mixing BLUE and YELLOW and is the coolest toned SecondaryVIOLET comes from mixing BLUE and RED and is a medium cool SecondaryThese colors are less strong than primariesSecondary colors are made by mixing equal parts of primary colors. For instance, green is a secondary color made by mixing yellow and blue. Orange comes from mixing red and yellow. Violet results from mixing blue and red. These colors are less strong than primaries,
17 Intermediate Colors Tertiary Colors Tertiary ColorsA tertiary color or Intermediate Color is a color made by mixing one primary color with one secondary color in equal amounts.This combination achieves the most variety & effectiveness in hair color.
18 Each primary’s opposite or compliment is a secondary color Complimentary ColorsWarm ColorsThe color wheel has a cool side and a warm side. BLUE, GRENN & VIOLET are on cool sideORANGE< RED & YELLOW are on the warm sideCool ColorsEach primary’s opposite or compliment is a secondary colorWhen two complimentary colors are mixed, they neutralize each other, creating a shade of brown
19 Complimentary ColorsComplimentary ColorsEach Primary’s opposite or Compliment is a Secondary color. When two complimentary colors are mixed, they neutralize each other, creating a shade of brownThe color wheel has a cool side and a warm side. BLUE, GREEN & VIOLET are on cool sideORANGE, RED & YELLOW are on the warm sideMixing all 3 Primaries by weight makes neutral: 1 part BLUE, 2 parts RED & 3 parts YELLOWNeutural is made by mixing all 3 Primaries by weight1 part BLUE + 2 parts RED + 3 parts YELLOW
20 Analogous (uh-NAL-uh-gus) colors sit next to each other on the color wheel. They tend to look pleasant together because they are closely related.FYI:YELLOW is the lightest and brightest warm primary.It’s the color used most frequently because it creates the most highlighted dimensional effect. When added to a color formula, YELLOW produces brightness.YELLOW is positioned deepest in the hair shaft making it the most difficult to remove. The only way to eliminate YELLOW from the hair shaft is to lighten the hair.Secondary ColorsNeutral vs Natural
21 HAIR FACTSThe structure of the hair will affect the quality and ultimate success of a haircolor service.CuticleCortexMedulla
22 TEXTUREFine hair pigment groups more tightly; color deposited in fine hair results in darker hair. Fine hair is less resistant to hair lightening. A milder bleach can be used.Medium texture hair has average responses to haircolor products.Coarse hair has a large diameter and can take longer to process. Coarse hair has greater resistance to lighteners.
23 DENSITY The number of hairs per square inch on scalp Can be described as sparse, moderate, or thick
24 POROSITY This is the ability of the hair to absorb moisture. Porous hair accepts haircolor fasterLow porosity—the cuticle is tight.Average porosity—the cuticle is slightly raised.High porosity—the cuticle is lifted.Testing for porosity
25 Porosity Grading System Porosity Grading SystemGrade 1– compact tight cuticle; minimal to no chemical treatment or exposure to excessive sun or mechanical styling tools; very little resistance to combing when wet.Grade 2– slightly raised cuticle; mild chemical treatments; some environmental exposure. May be up to 3 levels lighter than natural haircolor; good elasticity.Grade 3– moderately raised cuticle.; exposure to chemical treatments, and/or regular use of heat implements. May be up to 5 levels lighter thannatural haircolor; resistance to combing without conditioning treatment; fair elasticity.Grade 4– excessively raised cuticle; excessive exposure to chemical treatments and heated styling implements; frizzy appearance when dry. May be up to 7 levels lighter than natural color; poor elasticity and retangles when combed wet.Grade 5– loss of cuticle layer; exposed to chemical treatment to the point of breakage; hair feels mushy or slimy when wet. May be 8 or more levels lighter than natural haircolor; breaks off when wet.THE POROSITY GRADING SYSTEM has been developed to provide a concise means of identifying levels of porosity. It is important to observe the hair both dry and wet to have an accurate reading of porosity.CT/IB World Conference Technical Conference Frankfurt
26 Q: What did the blonde do when she heard that 90% of accidents occur around the home? A: She moved.
27 NATURAL HAIR COLORIdentifying natural hair color is an important step in becoming a good hair colorist. Natural hair ranges from black to dark brown to red, and from dark blonde to light blonde.19% of the world redheads live in Scotland but Scotland only accounts for 1% of the world population.1-2 % of the world population is redheaded.2 – 6%
32 NATURAL HAIR COLOR Two types of melanin in the cortex Eumelanin is melanin that gives black and brown color to hair.Pheomelanin is melanin that is found in red hair. Very dark hair and most brunettes contain this pigment.Contributing pigment is the pigment in natural hair color. The foundation of haircoloring is based on modifying this pigment with haircolor to create new pigment.
33 THE LEVEL SYSTEMLevel is the unit of measurement used to identify the lightness or darkness of a color; also referred to value or depth.Colorists use the Level System to analyze the lightness or darkness of a hair color.Levels are arranged on a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being the darkest and 10 being the lightest.
34 THE LEVEL SYSTEM Tone—describes the warmth or coolness of a color Warm tones are reds, oranges, yellows, auburn, copper, gold, bronze, or honeyCool tones are blue, green, violet, ash, drab, smoky, or platinumIntensity—refers to the strength of a color tone, described as mild, medium, or strong
35 BASE COLORSA base color is the predominant tonality of an existing color. It influences the final color result.Violet base color will deliver cool results and minimize yellow.Blue base color will minimize orange tones.Red-orange base will create bright, warm results.Gold bases create gold haircolor from brunettes to light blondes.
36 IDENTIFYING NATURAL LEVEL AND TONE The color wheel and haircolor swatch books are a great help in identifying natural hair color levels.
37 IDENTIFYING NATURAL LEVEL AND TONE Take a 2-inch square section in crown and hold up from scalp; allow light to pass through.Use swatches and find a match to the hair.Move swatch from scalp to ends.Determine the natural color level.
38 TYPES OF HAIRCOLORThe term haircolor is a professional, industry-coined term referring to artificial haircolor products and services.Hair color (two words) is the color of hair created by nature.There are four categories of haircolor:TemporarySemipermanentDemipermanentPermanent
39 HAIR LIGHTENING Often referred to as “bleaching” or “decolorizing” Diffuses natural or artificial color pigmentContains developer as the oxidizing agentContains an alkalizing ingredientTo open cuticleTo facilitate the oxidation reactionTo facilitate lightening action of peroxide
40 TEMPORARY COLOR Large molecules do not penetrate cuticle. Color coats the shaft only; creates a physical change in the hair.Process is good for neutralizing unwanted tones.These are available incolor rinses.colored mousses and gel.hair mascara.spray-on haircolor.color-enhancing shampoos.Action of temporary haircolor
41 SEMIPERMANENT HAIRCOLOR Lasts through several shampoosPartially penetrate hair shaftDiffuses out of hair during shampooingNo regrowth maintenanceFormulated with ammoniaCan be used right out of the bottleAfter rinse, can be used to prevent fadingAction of semipermanent haircolor
42 DEMIPERMANENT HAIRCOLOR Is similar to semipermanent but longer lastingCan penetrate hair shaftIs deposit-only; no lifting powerHas smaller pigment moleculesGives vivid color resultsCauses little to no damageHas low to no ammoniaIs ideal for covering unpigmented hairRequires a patch testAction of demipermanent color
43 PERMANENT HAIRCOLORMixed with a developer and remains in the hair permanentlyBest for covering gray hairContains ammonia, oxidative tints, and peroxideRequires a patch testContains aniline derivatives, very small compounds that penetrate the hair shaft
44 Permanent haircolor molecules inside the cortex Aniline derivatives, combined with H²0², penetrate the cortexColor cannot be shampooed outThis simultaneously removes natural pigment while adding artificial color.Permanent haircolor molecules inside the cortex
45 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE DEVELOPERS Oxidizing agents that, when mixed with an oxidative haircolor, supply the oxygen gas to develop color molecules and change hair colorAlso called oxidizing agents or catalystsHave an acidic pH between 2.5 and 4.5Hydrogen peroxide most commonVolume of developers10 (less lift)203040 (more lift)
46 NATURAL HAIRCOLORSAre also known as vegetable haircolors such as hennaAre obtained from the leaves or bark of plantsHave no lifting powerCan be messy and lengthy processLimited shades of black, chestnut, and auburnAre incompatible with many professional chemical products
49 METALLIC HAIRCOLORThese are also called gradual colors or progressive dyes.They contain metal saltsProgressive buildup creates a dull, metallic, unnatural appearance.They require daily application and historically have been marketed to men
50 HAIR LIGHTENERSChemical compounds lighten hair by dispersing, dissolving, and decolorizing natural hair pigment.Hydrogen peroxide serves as the oxidizing agent and begins to release oxygen when mixed with lightener.Purposes of lighteners are tolighten prior to a color application.lighten to a desired shade.brighten and lighten existing shade.lighten only certain parts of hair.lighten dark natural or color-treated levels.
51 HAIR LIGHTENERS Hair lighteners diffuse pigment. The amount of change depends onhow much pigment is in the hair.the strength of the lightening product.the length of time it is processed.Hair lighteners diffuse pigment
52 TEN DEGREES OF DECOLORIZATION Dark red/brownRed/brownRedRed/orangeOrangeOrange/goldGoldYellow/goldYellowPale yellow
53 CONTRIBUTION OF UNDERLYING PIGMENT Lightening the hair to the correct stage is essential to a controlled, final haircoloring result.The hair is decolorized to the appropriate level.The new color is applied to deposit the desired color. The natural pigment remains in hair and contributes to the artificial color that is added.Contributing undertones
56 TONERSAre semipermanent, demipermanent, and permanent haircolor products used primarily on prelightened hair to achieve a pale, delicate colorAre applied to the lightest degree of contributing pigment after decolorizing
57 CAUTIONNever lift past pale yellow stage to white with lightener; this will cause excessive damage to hair.Hair will become mushy.Hair will lose its elasticity.Hair will be harsh and brittle.Hair often suffers breakage and won’t accept toner.
58 SUMMARYHaircoloring follows the Law of Color, a system of understanding relationships of color.All colors are created from the three primaries.Three primaries can be mixed to create secondary colors that can then be mixed with adjacent primary colors to create tertiary colors.
59 SUMMARY Temporary colors are removed by shampooing. Semipermanent and demipermanent color lasts longer than temporary, and bridges the gap to permanent colors.The lasting ability of any hair product will be directly affected by the hair’s porosity.
60 CLIENT CONSULTATIONBook 15 minutes to introduce yourself; welcome client; offer beverage; and ensure there are no interruptions.Have client complete an information card. Note the client’s eye and skin color and condition, length, and the percentage of gray in hair.Look directly at your client.Discuss hair history; ask leading questions such as:Are you looking for a temporary or permanent change?Are you taking medications? (Medical treatments for diabetes, high blood pressure, and thyroid problems can affect outcome of color.)
61 CLIENT CONSULTATIONRecommend two options; show pictures in different ranges.Review procedure, cost, and maintenance.Be honest; don’t promise what you can’t deliver.Gain approval from client.Start the haircolor service.Follow through during the service by educating the client about home care, products, and rebooking for follow-up service.Fill out client record card.
62 RELEASE STATEMENTUsed primarily to explain to clients that if their hair is in questionable condition, it may not withstand the serviceDesigned to protect the school or salon
63 PATCH TESTThe U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act prescribes a patch test to be given 24 to 48 hours prior to the application of an aniline derivative product to determine if the client has allergies or sensitivities.This is also called a predisposition test.
64 CAUTIONNever use aniline derivative tints on the eyebrows or eyelashes.To do so may cause blindness.A positive patch test will show signs of inflammation such asredness.slight rash.welt.
67 PRELIMINARY STRAND TEST Apply the haircolor formula on a small strand of hair to determine how the hair will react and how long the formula should process.
68 TEMPORARY COLOR PROCEDURE There are many methods of applying temporary color, depending on the product used.Follow your instructor’s and manufacturer’s directions.
69 SEMIPERMANENT COLOR These are deposit-only. They have no lifting power.Remember that color applied on top of color always creates a darker color.Porosity of the hair will determine how well the color will “take.”Color will build up on the hair with each application.A strand test will determine your formula and processing time.
70 DEMIPERMANENT COLORApplication procedure is similar to that of semipermanent color.Neither of these colors alters the hair’s natural melanin or produces lift.Follow manufacture’s directions for application.Take into account the amount of gray hair and whether the hair has previously been colored (which affects its porosity).
71 PERMANENT COLORSingle process haircoloring lightens and colors the hair in a single application.Virgin application means first time hair is tinted.Retouch application is done at the roots only.Most are formulated with 20 volume peroxide.Double-process coloring—known as double-application or two-step coloring; hair is prelightened before the color is added.
72 PERMANENT COLOR Four questions in formulating color What is the natural level?What is the client’s desired level and tone?Are contributing pigments (undertones) revealed?What colors should be mixed to get the desired result?Shade and H²0² volume determine lifting ability.
73 MIXING PERMANENT COLOR Applicator bottleLarge enough for color and developer with enough space for mixingBrush and bowlNonmetallic bowlPlastic tint brushCreamy consistency
74 DOUBLE-PROCESS HAIRCOLOR For dramatically lighter color, prelighten hair.Hair must first be decolorized; then add product to achieve desired color tone.To applyPrelighten hair.At desired level, shampoo, acidify, towel dry.Perform strand test; then apply color.
76 THREE TYPES OF LIGHTENERS Oil—“on the scalp”Cream—“on the scalp”Powder—“off the scalp”
77 ON-THE-SCALP LIGHTENERS Oil lightenersMildestAppropriate for one or two levels of liftCream lightenersStrong enough to do blondingGentle enough to use on scalp
78 ON-THE-SCALP LIGHTENERS Cream lightenersThickeners give more control during application.Overlapping can be prevented.They can be mixed with activators, boosters, protinators, and accelerators.Up to three activators can be used for on-the-scalp applications.An activator is an oxidizer added to hydrogen peroxide to increase its chemical reaction or lifting power.
79 OFF-THE-SCALP LIGHTENERS Are not applied directly to scalpCome in powder formAre strong enough for blondingAre also called quick lightenersContain boosters (oxygen released for quick action)Dry out quickly; do not run or dripExpand and spread out during processingUsed for foils, highlighting with caps, hair painting
80 TIME FACTORS FOR PROCESSING Darker hair has more melanin; the more melanin, the longer it takes to lighten.Porous hair lightens faster than nonporous hair.Tone influences timing; the greater percentage of red, the more difficult it is to achieve the pale, delicate shades of blonde.Stronger lighteners attain pale shades faster.Heat leads to quicker lightening.Preliminary strand test required.CAUTION - When heat is used, it softens hair and makes it more fragile. Excessive heat causes motion of molecules to become so great that damage can occur as the cuticle layers are removed and the cortical bonds are destroyed.
81 LIGHTENER RETOUCH Lighten new growth (regrowth) first. Apply product to new growth only.Cream lightener is generally used for a lightener retouch as its consistency helps prevent overlapping.Remember—Overlapping can cause severe breakage and lines of demarcation, and cream lighteners are gentler on the scalp. Consult client record cards for information about prior formulas.
82 TONERS Toners require double-processing. Do not prelighten past the pale yellow stage.Patch test is required 24 hours before toner; to save time, strand test can be performed at same time.Proceed with service if patch test is negative.
83 SUMMARYThe most important step in correct color selection is the client consultation.You must develop effective listening skills in order to ensure thorough and accurate communication between yourself and the client.Properly analyze the hair and scalp.Perform the patch test.Record all information on the record card.Explain release statement to client.Strand testing is necessary to determine the hair’s reaction to the color formula.
85 SPECIAL EFFECTS HAIRCOLORING This refers to any technique that involves partially lightening or coloring of the hair.
86 HIGHLIGHTINGThis is coloring some strands lighter than the natural shadeIt adds illusion of sheen and depth.It does not usually contrast strongly with natural color.Lighter colors advance to the eye to appear larger.Details become more visible.
87 REVERSE HIGHLIGHTING This is also called lowlighting. This is coloring strands darker than natural color.Dark areas recede and appear smaller.Details become less visible.
88 METHODS OF HIGHLIGHTING Cap techniqueThis involves pulling strands of hair through a perforated cap with a thin plastic or metal hook.The number of strands pulled through cap determines the degree of highlighting achieved.Foil techniqueStrands are sliced or weaved out of a sectionPlacing foil in hair takes practice and disciplineFoil patterns include face-frame, half-head, three-quarter head, and full-head
90 BALAYAGE OR FREE-FORM TECHNIQUE This involves painting a lightener directly onto clean, styled hair.Lightener is applied with a tint brush from scalp to ends around head.Effects are subtle and used to draw attention to the hair surface.
92 TONING OVERHIGHLIGHTED AND DIMENSIONALLY COLORED HAIR Hair that is highlighted may not need a toner; it depends whether the desired tone is reached.If a cooler tone is desired, a toner will be required to cancel out the yellow contributing pigment.To avoid affecting untreated hair; choose one of the following:A nonoxidative toner that contains no ammonia and requires no developer.A semipermanent color to deposit tone without liftA demipermanent color, which deposits tone, lasts longer then semipermanent, and contains no ammonia
93 HIGHLIGHTING SHAMPOO TINTS Prepared by combining permanent haircolor, hydrogen peroxide, and shampooUsed when a slight change is desiredUsed when client’s hair processes very rapidlyHighlight natural color in a single applicationRequire a patch test 24 hours prior to application
94 HIGHLIGHTING SHAMPOOS These are prepared by combining shampoo and hydrogen peroxide.This mixture will slightly lighten the natural hair color.No patch test is required.
95 SPECIAL PROBLEMS INHAIRCOLOR ANDCORRECTIVE COLORING
96 SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN HAIRCOLOR Each service is unique and should be preceded by a complete client consultation.Strand tests should be used to ensure more satisfactory results.Occasionally, challenges do occur in haircolor.Let’s take a look at a few you might encounter…
97 CHALLENGES AND CAUSES Gray hair Causes of yellow dicolorationSmokingMedicationSun exposureSome styling aidsUndesired yellow can often be overpowered by applying haircolor with a violet base of an equal or darker level than the yellowGray hairCan turn orange if lightener is not processed long enough
98 FORMULATING FOR GRAY HAIR Level 9 or lighter may not give complete coverage of gray.Levels 6, 7, or 8 can be used to create pastel and blonde tones.For 80% to 100% natural gray, the blonde range is generally more flattering than a darker shade.When coloring salt-and-pepper hair to darker, color on color will make a darker shade; use a shade lighter than the naturally dark hair.
99 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS WHEN FORMULATING FOR GRAY HAIR Client personalityPersonal preferencesAmount and location of gray hairIf the majority of the client’s gray hair is located in the front, that section may be 80% gray while the remainder of the head may be only 30% gray. That should be considered when formulating color.
100 PRESOFTENINGGray hair can be highly resistant and requires presoftening to allow proper penetration of color.This is a double-application process:presoftener is applied, processed, removed.Haircolor is applied.
101 RULES FOR EFFECTIVE COLOR CORRECTION Do not panic.Establish the true problem.Establish the cause of problem.Establish a suitable remedy.Take one step at a time.Never guarantee exact results.Always strand test for accuracy.
102 DAMAGED HAIR CHARACTERISTICS Rough textureOverporous conditionBrittle and dry to touchSusceptible to breakageNo elasticityBecomes spongy and matted when wetColor fades or absorbs too rapidly
103 DAMAGE HAIR TREATMENTS Use a penetrating conditioner to deposit protein, oils, and moisture-rich ingredients.Normalize pH with a finishing rinse.If hair is unresponsive after conditioning treatments, postpone further chemical services and continue treatments until hair is reconditioned.Schedule client for between-service conditioning.Recommend retail products for home maintenance.
104 FILLERSSpecialized preparations designed to help equalize porosity and deposit a base color in one applicationTwo types:Conditioner fillersAre used to recondition damaged, overly porous hairCan be applied in separate procedure or immediately prior to color applicationColor fillersMay be demipermanent color used when there is doubt as to even color results
105 COLOR FILLER ADVANTAGES Deposits color to faded endsHelps hair hold colorPrevents streaking and dull appearancePrevents off-color resultsProduces more uniform, natural-looking color in a tintProduces more uniform color when doing a tint back
106 SELECTING CORRECT COLOR FILLER Select to replace missing primary color in formulation; all three primaries (yellow, red and blue) must be present for natural-looking hair colorColor fillers may be applied directly to hair or mixed with tint and applied to damaged ends.
107 TIPS FOR REDS Use low-volume hydrogen peroxide. Prelighten darker hair to achieve brighter, warmer reds.Formulate correctly for proper intensity of red.In retouching, use permanent color on new growth and refresh ends with deposit-only color.
108 BRASSINESS/UNWANTED TONES Analyze brassiness first.Are the brassy tones red, yellow, or orange?Locate that particular shade on the color wheel and use the complementary color to neutralize it.This can be done with temporary rinses, soap caps during retouches, fillers, and semipermanent or demipermanent colors.
109 TINT REMOVALSometimes, there is enough buildup of color on the hair that removal of all or part of it may be necessary to achieve the desired color.Professional products may contain ingredients to diffuse pigment, both natural and artificial.They are sometimes mixed with hydrogen peroxide.Some are mixed with distilled water when milder products are needed.Always follow manufacturers’ directions.Never leave client unattended during a chemical service.
110 TINT BACK TO NATURALPorosity must be evened out to achieve color correction.Create warmth to prevent drab, unnatural looking color.Demipermanent, deposit-only color is a great choice.A soap cap is a combination of equal parts of prepared tint and shampoo; apply like a regular shampoo.
111 HAIRCOLORING SAFETYThere are several factors and procedures you should keep in mind when providing haircoloring services that will help ensure quality results and your client’s safety.Administer patch test when using a aniline derivative tint.Do not apply if abrasions are present.Do not apply if metallic or compound tint is present.Do not brush hair prior to service.Read and follow manufacturers’ directions.Use sanitized applicator bottles, brushes, combs, and towels.Drape client properly.
112 HAIRCOLORING SAFETYPerform strand test; this will alert you to correct color, breakage, and/or discoloration.Use bottle or bowl for mixing tint; use either glass or a plastic bowl.Do not mix until ready to use; discard leftover tint.Wear protective gloves.Don’t let color get in eyes.Do not overlap during retouch.Use mild shampoo.Always wash hands before and after serving each client.
113 SUMMARYThe world of professional haircolor offers unlimited challenges and significant financial returns.Once you’ve mastered the theory and Law of Color as well as all the procedures and techniques, you may choose to specialize as a colorist.All color begins with three primary colors.When two primaries are mixed equally, a secondary is created.All three primaries must be present to create brown.Categories of haircolor are temporary, semipermanent, demipermanent, and permanent.Analyze the level of natural hair color as well as the color level desired.When using an aniline derivative tint, a patch test must be given 24 hours prior to service.
114 SUMMARY Record all important information on the client’s record card. Proper draping is essential to protect the client’s skin and clothing.Frequent strand testing is recommended to ensure quality results.We learned about special effects and procedures used for highlighting hair.It is important to remember such factors as porosity, foundation color, percentage and location of unpigmented hair, condition of hair, and desired results.