Haircoloring includes the following processes: – Depositing color on natural hair color – Depositing color on previously colored hair – Depositing color on hair that has been lightened – Lightening and depositing color in one step Hair lightening or decolorizing involves diffusing natural or artificial color from hair. It is important for you to understand the principles of the color wheel, color theory, and color levels. HAIRCOLOR SERVICES
To cover up gray hair To enhance an existing hair color To create a fashion statement or self- expression To correct unwanted tones To accentuate a particular haircut WHY PEOPLE COLOR THEIR HAIR
Color is a form of light energy. All the colors we can see are contained in the visible spectrum of light. COLOR THEORY
THE LAW OF COLOR A system of understanding color relationships Primary colors Red Yellow Blue
Primary Colors Primary Colors are colors of the purest form. They are the strongest and most influential pigments. Basic Color that cannot be created by combining other colors. The three primary colors are: Blue, Yellow, Red
BLUE Primary colors are pure or fundamental colors that cannot be achieved from a mixture. Predominance of blue results in cool-toned colors. Blue is the darkest primary color; it brings depth or darkness to colors when it is added. BLUE is the darkest, most dominant and only cool primary When added to a color, BLUE will produce depth Blue has the largest molecular size and the heaviest pigment weight BLUE is the closest to the cuticle layer and the easiest to eliminate
RED Predominance of red results in warm-toned colors. Red is the medium primary; when added to blue-based colors, it will cause them to appear lighter; when added to yellow colors, it will cause them to become darker. RED is a medium bright, warm primary that reflects more light than any other color. It is the strongest of the warm primary colors When added to a color formula, RED produces richness. RED is positioned deeper in the hair shaft making it difficult to remove. In order to eliminate, the hair shaft must be expanded wide enough (and for long enough) for oxidation to affect the RED molecule.
Yellow Yellow is the lightest primary color. When added to other colors, they become lighter and brighter in appearance. YELLOW is the lightest and brightest warm primary. It’s the color used most frequently because it creates the most highlighted dimensional effect When added to a color formula, YELLOW produces brightness YELLOW is positioned deepest in the hair shaft making it the most difficult to remove. Only way to eliminate YELLOW from the hair shaft is to lighten the hair.
Black has all three primary colors present in equal proportions. –“The presence of all colors” –“Absorbs all light” White has none of the primary colors present. –“Absence of all color” –“Reflects all light” Primary Colors White
Neutral brown has primary colors in the following proportions: Blue (B) Red (RR) Yellow (YYY) Neutral Brown
SECONDARY COLORS Mix equal parts of two primary colors. Red + blue = violet Yellow + blue = green Red + yellow = orange
TERTIARY COLORS Mix a secondary color with a neighboring primary color in equal amounts. blue - greenblue - green blue - violetblue - violet red - violetred - violet red - orangered - orange yellow - orangeyellow - orange yellow - greenyellow - green
COMPLEMENTARY COLORS These neutralize each other Understanding complementary colors helps you make haircolor decisions to accomplish your desired goal. blue and orangeblue and orange red and greenred and green yellow and violetyellow and violet
Secondary Colors Secondary Colors are made by mixing equal parts of primary colors. ORANGE comes from mixing RED and YELLOW and is the strongest and only warm Secondary GREEN comes from mixing BLUE and YELLOW and is the coolest toned Secondary VIOLET comes from mixing BLUE and RED and is a medium cool Secondary These colors are less strong than primaries
Complimentary Colors Each primary’s opposite or compliment is a secondary color When two complimentary colors are mixed, they neutralize each other, creating a shade of brown Warm Colors Cool Colors
Neutural is made by mixing all 3 Primaries by weight 1 part BLUE + 2 parts RED + 3 parts YELLOW Complimentary Colors
Neutral vs Natural Analogous (uh-NAL-uh-gus) colors sit next to each other on the color wheel. They tend to look pleasant together because they are closely related. FYI:
HAIR FACTS The structure of the hair will affect the quality and ultimate success of a haircolor service. Cuticle Cortex Medulla
Fine hair pigment groups more tightly; color deposited in fine hair results in darker hair. Fine hair is less resistant to hair lightening. A milder bleach can be used. Medium texture hair has average responses to haircolor products. Coarse hair has a large diameter and can take longer to process. Coarse hair has greater resistance to lighteners. TEXTURE
The number of hairs per square inch on scalp Can be described as sparse, moderate, or thick DENSITY
This is the ability of the hair to absorb moisture. Porous hair accepts haircolor faster Low porosity—the cuticle is tight. Average porosity—the cuticle is slightly raised. High porosity—the cuticle is lifted. POROSITY Testing for porosity
Grade 1– compact tight cuticle; minimal to no chemical treatment or exposure to excessive sun or mechanical styling tools; very little resistance to combing when wet. Grade 2– slightly raised cuticle; mild chemical treatments; some environmental exposure. May be up to 3 levels lighter than natural haircolor; good elasticity. Grade 3– moderately raised cuticle.; exposure to chemical treatments, and/or regular use of heat implements. May be up to 5 levels lighter thannatural haircolor; resistance to combing without conditioning treatment; fair elasticity. Grade 4– excessively raised cuticle; excessive exposure to chemical treatments and heated styling implements; frizzy appearance when dry. May be up to 7 levels lighter than natural color; poor elasticity and retangles when combed wet. Grade 5– loss of cuticle layer; exposed to chemical treatment to the point of breakage; hair feels mushy or slimy when wet. May be 8 or more levels lighter than natural haircolor; breaks off when wet. Porosity Grading System
Q: What did the blonde do when she heard that 90% of accidents occur around the home? A: She moved.
NATURAL HAIR COLOR Identifying natural hair color is an important step in becoming a good hair colorist. Natural hair ranges from black to dark brown to red, and from dark blonde to light blonde.
Two types of melanin in the cortex –Eumelanin is melanin that gives black and brown color to hair. –Pheomelanin is melanin that is found in red hair. Very dark hair and most brunettes contain this pigment. Contributing pigment is the pigment in natural hair color. The foundation of haircoloring is based on modifying this pigment with haircolor to create new pigment. NATURAL HAIR COLOR
THE LEVEL SYSTEM Level is the unit of measurement used to identify the lightness or darkness of a color; also referred to value or depth. Colorists use the Level System to analyze the lightness or darkness of a hair color. Levels are arranged on a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being the darkest and 10 being the lightest.
THE LEVEL SYSTEM Tone—describes the warmth or coolness of a color –Warm tones are reds, oranges, yellows, auburn, copper, gold, bronze, or honey –Cool tones are blue, green, violet, ash, drab, smoky, or platinum Intensity—refers to the strength of a color tone, described as mild, medium, or strong
BASE COLORS A base color is the predominant tonality of an existing color. It influences the final color result. –Violet base color will deliver cool results and minimize yellow. –Blue base color will minimize orange tones. –Red-orange base will create bright, warm results. –Gold bases create gold haircolor from brunettes to light blondes.
IDENTIFYING NATURAL LEVEL AND TONE The color wheel and haircolor swatch books are a great help in identifying natural hair color levels.
IDENTIFYING NATURAL LEVEL AND TONE Take a 2-inch square section in crown and hold up from scalp; allow light to pass through. Use swatches and find a match to the hair. Move swatch from scalp to ends. Determine the natural color level.
TYPES OF HAIRCOLOR The term haircolor is a professional, industry-coined term referring to artificial haircolor products and services. Hair color (two words) is the color of hair created by nature. There are four categories of haircolor: –Temporary –Semipermanent –Demipermanent –Permanent
HAIR LIGHTENING Often referred to as “bleaching” or “decolorizing” Diffuses natural or artificial color pigment Contains developer as the oxidizing agent Contains an alkalizing ingredient –To open cuticle –To facilitate the oxidation reaction –To facilitate lightening action of peroxide
TEMPORARY COLOR Large molecules do not penetrate cuticle. Color coats the shaft only; creates a physical change in the hair. Process is good for neutralizing unwanted tones. These are available in –color rinses. –colored mousses and gel. –hair mascara. –spray-on haircolor. –color-enhancing shampoos. Action of temporary haircolor
SEMIPERMANENT HAIRCOLOR Lasts through several shampoos Partially penetrate hair shaft Diffuses out of hair during shampooing No regrowth maintenance Formulated with ammonia Can be used right out of the bottle After rinse, can be used to prevent fading Action of semipermanent haircolor
DEMIPERMANENT HAIRCOLOR Is similar to semipermanent but longer lasting Can penetrate hair shaft Is deposit-only; no lifting power Has smaller pigment molecules Gives vivid color results Causes little to no damage Has low to no ammonia Is ideal for covering unpigmented hair Requires a patch test Action of demipermanent color
PERMANENT HAIRCOLOR Mixed with a developer and remains in the hair permanently Best for covering gray hair Contains ammonia, oxidative tints, and peroxide Requires a patch test Contains aniline derivatives, very small compounds that penetrate the hair shaft
PERMANENT HAIRCOLOR Aniline derivatives, combined with H ² 0 ², penetrate the cortex Color cannot be shampooed out This simultaneously removes natural pigment while adding artificial color. Permanent haircolor molecules inside the cortex
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE DEVELOPERS Oxidizing agents that, when mixed with an oxidative haircolor, supply the oxygen gas to develop color molecules and change hair color Also called oxidizing agents or catalysts Have an acidic pH between 2.5 and 4.5 Hydrogen peroxide most common Volume of developers –10 (less lift) –20 –30 –40 (more lift)
NATURAL HAIRCOLORS Are also known as vegetable haircolors such as henna Are obtained from the leaves or bark of plants Have no lifting power Can be messy and lengthy process Limited shades of black, chestnut, and auburn Are incompatible with many professional chemical products
METALLIC HAIRCOLOR These are also called gradual colors or progressive dyes. They contain metal salts Progressive buildup creates a dull, metallic, unnatural appearance. They require daily application and historically have been marketed to men
HAIR LIGHTENERS Chemical compounds lighten hair by dispersing, dissolving, and decolorizing natural hair pigment. Hydrogen peroxide serves as the oxidizing agent and begins to release oxygen when mixed with lightener. Purposes of lighteners are to –lighten prior to a color application. –lighten to a desired shade. –brighten and lighten existing shade. –lighten only certain parts of hair. –lighten dark natural or color-treated levels.
HAIR LIGHTENERS Hair lighteners diffuse pigment. The amount of change depends on –how much pigment is in the hair. –the strength of the lightening product. –the length of time it is processed. Hair lighteners diffuse pigment
TEN DEGREES OF DECOLORIZATION Dark red/brown Red/brown Red Red/orange Orange Orange/gold Gold Yellow/gold Yellow Pale yellow
CONTRIBUTION OF UNDERLYING PIGMENT Lightening the hair to the correct stage is essential to a controlled, final haircoloring result. –The hair is decolorized to the appropriate level. –The new color is applied to deposit the desired color. The natural pigment remains in hair and contributes to the artificial color that is added. Contributing undertones
TONERS Are semipermanent, demipermanent, and permanent haircolor products used primarily on prelightened hair to achieve a pale, delicate color Are applied to the lightest degree of contributing pigment after decolorizing
CAUTION Never lift past pale yellow stage to white with lightener; this will cause excessive damage to hair. –Hair will become mushy. –Hair will lose its elasticity. –Hair will be harsh and brittle. –Hair often suffers breakage and won’t accept toner.
SUMMARY Haircoloring follows the Law of Color, a system of understanding relationships of color. All colors are created from the three primaries. Three primaries can be mixed to create secondary colors that can then be mixed with adjacent primary colors to create tertiary colors.
SUMMARY Temporary colors are removed by shampooing. Semipermanent and demipermanent color lasts longer than temporary, and bridges the gap to permanent colors. The lasting ability of any hair product will be directly affected by the hair’s porosity.
CLIENT CONSULTATION Book 15 minutes to introduce yourself; welcome client; offer beverage; and ensure there are no interruptions. Have client complete an information card. Note the client’s eye and skin color and condition, length, and the percentage of gray in hair. Look directly at your client. Discuss hair history; ask leading questions such as: –Are you looking for a temporary or permanent change? –Are you taking medications? (Medical treatments for diabetes, high blood pressure, and thyroid problems can affect outcome of color.)
CLIENT CONSULTATION Recommend two options; show pictures in different ranges. Review procedure, cost, and maintenance. Be honest; don’t promise what you can’t deliver. Gain approval from client. Start the haircolor service. Follow through during the service by educating the client about home care, products, and rebooking for follow-up service. Fill out client record card.
RELEASE STATEMENT Used primarily to explain to clients that if their hair is in questionable condition, it may not withstand the service Designed to protect the school or salon
PATCH TEST The U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act prescribes a patch test to be given 24 to 48 hours prior to the application of an aniline derivative product to determine if the client has allergies or sensitivities. This is also called a predisposition test.
CAUTION Never use aniline derivative tints on the eyebrows or eyelashes. To do so may cause blindness. A positive patch test will show signs of inflammation such as –redness. –slight rash. –welt.
PRELIMINARY STRAND TEST Apply the haircolor formula on a small strand of hair to determine how the hair will react and how long the formula should process.
TEMPORARY COLOR PROCEDURE There are many methods of applying temporary color, depending on the product used. Follow your instructor’s and manufacturer’s directions.
SEMIPERMANENT COLOR These are deposit-only. They have no lifting power. Remember that color applied on top of color always creates a darker color. Porosity of the hair will determine how well the color will “take.” Color will build up on the hair with each application. A strand test will determine your formula and processing time.
DEMIPERMANENT COLOR Application procedure is similar to that of semipermanent color. Neither of these colors alters the hair’s natural melanin or produces lift. Follow manufacture’s directions for application. Take into account the amount of gray hair and whether the hair has previously been colored (which affects its porosity).
PERMANENT COLOR Single process haircoloring lightens and colors the hair in a single application. Virgin application means first time hair is tinted. Retouch application is done at the roots only. Most are formulated with 20 volume peroxide. Double-process coloring—known as double- application or two-step coloring; hair is prelightened before the color is added.
Four questions in formulating color –What is the natural level? –What is the client’s desired level and tone? –Are contributing pigments (undertones) revealed? –What colors should be mixed to get the desired result? Shade and H ² 0 ² volume determine lifting ability. PERMANENT COLOR
MIXING PERMANENT COLOR Applicator bottle –Large enough for color and developer with enough space for mixing Brush and bowl –Nonmetallic bowl –Plastic tint brush –Creamy consistency
DOUBLE-PROCESS HAIRCOLOR For dramatically lighter color, prelighten hair. Hair must first be decolorized; then add product to achieve desired color tone. To apply –Prelighten hair. –At desired level, shampoo, acidify, towel dry. –Perform strand test; then apply color.
THREE TYPES OF LIGHTENERS Oil—“on the scalp” Cream—“on the scalp” Powder—“off the scalp”
ON-THE-SCALP LIGHTENERS Oil lighteners –Mildest –Appropriate for one or two levels of lift Cream lighteners –Strong enough to do blonding –Gentle enough to use on scalp
ON-THE-SCALP LIGHTENERS Cream lighteners –Thickeners give more control during application. –Overlapping can be prevented. –They can be mixed with activators, boosters, protinators, and accelerators. –Up to three activators can be used for on-the-scalp applications. An activator is an oxidizer added to hydrogen peroxide to increase its chemical reaction or lifting power.
OFF-THE-SCALP LIGHTENERS Are not applied directly to scalp Come in powder form Are strong enough for blonding Are also called quick lighteners Contain boosters (oxygen released for quick action) Dry out quickly; do not run or drip Expand and spread out during processing Used for foils, highlighting with caps, hair painting
TIME FACTORS FOR PROCESSING Darker hair has more melanin; the more melanin, the longer it takes to lighten. Porous hair lightens faster than nonporous hair. Tone influences timing; the greater percentage of red, the more difficult it is to achieve the pale, delicate shades of blonde. Stronger lighteners attain pale shades faster. Heat leads to quicker lightening. Preliminary strand test required. CAUTION - When heat is used, it softens hair and makes it more fragile. Excessive heat causes motion of molecules to become so great that damage can occur as the cuticle layers are removed and the cortical bonds are destroyed.
LIGHTENER RETOUCH Lighten new growth (regrowth) first. Apply product to new growth only. Cream lightener is generally used for a lightener retouch as its consistency helps prevent overlapping. Remember—Overlapping can cause severe breakage and lines of demarcation, and cream lighteners are gentler on the scalp. Consult client record cards for information about prior formulas.
TONERS Toners require double-processing. Do not prelighten past the pale yellow stage. Patch test is required 24 hours before toner; to save time, strand test can be performed at same time. Proceed with service if patch test is negative.
SUMMARY The most important step in correct color selection is the client consultation. You must develop effective listening skills in order to ensure thorough and accurate communication between yourself and the client. Properly analyze the hair and scalp. Perform the patch test. Record all information on the record card. Explain release statement to client. Strand testing is necessary to determine the hair’s reaction to the color formula.
This refers to any technique that involves partially lightening or coloring of the hair.
HIGHLIGHTING This is coloring some strands lighter than the natural shade It adds illusion of sheen and depth. It does not usually contrast strongly with natural color. Lighter colors advance to the eye to appear larger. Details become more visible.
REVERSE HIGHLIGHTING This is also called lowlighting. This is coloring strands darker than natural color. Dark areas recede and appear smaller. Details become less visible.
METHODS OF HIGHLIGHTING Cap technique –This involves pulling strands of hair through a perforated cap with a thin plastic or metal hook. –The number of strands pulled through cap determines the degree of highlighting achieved. Foil technique –Strands are sliced or weaved out of a section –Placing foil in hair takes practice and discipline –Foil patterns include face-frame, half-head, three- quarter head, and full-head
BALAYAGE OR FREE-FORM TECHNIQUE This involves painting a lightener directly onto clean, styled hair. Lightener is applied with a tint brush from scalp to ends around head. Effects are subtle and used to draw attention to the hair surface.
TONING OVERHIGHLIGHTED AND DIMENSIONALLY COLORED HAIR Hair that is highlighted may not need a toner; it depends whether the desired tone is reached. If a cooler tone is desired, a toner will be required to cancel out the yellow contributing pigment. To avoid affecting untreated hair; choose one of the following: –A nonoxidative toner that contains no ammonia and requires no developer. –A semipermanent color to deposit tone without lift –A demipermanent color, which deposits tone, lasts longer then semipermanent, and contains no ammonia
HIGHLIGHTING SHAMPOO TINTS Prepared by combining permanent haircolor, hydrogen peroxide, and shampoo Used when a slight change is desired Used when client’s hair processes very rapidly Highlight natural color in a single application Require a patch test 24 hours prior to application
HIGHLIGHTING SHAMPOOS These are prepared by combining shampoo and hydrogen peroxide. This mixture will slightly lighten the natural hair color. No patch test is required.
SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN HAIRCOLOR AND CORRECTIVE COLORING
SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN HAIRCOLOR Each service is unique and should be preceded by a complete client consultation. Strand tests should be used to ensure more satisfactory results. Occasionally, challenges do occur in haircolor. Let’s take a look at a few you might encounter…
CHALLENGES AND CAUSES Gray hair –Can turn orange if lightener is not processed long enough Causes of yellow dicoloration –Smoking –Medication –Sun exposure –Some styling aids Undesired yellow can often be overpowered by applying haircolor with a violet base of an equal or darker level than the yellow
FORMULATING FOR GRAY HAIR Level 9 or lighter may not give complete coverage of gray. Levels 6, 7, or 8 can be used to create pastel and blonde tones. For 80% to 100% natural gray, the blonde range is generally more flattering than a darker shade. When coloring salt-and-pepper hair to darker, color on color will make a darker shade; use a shade lighter than the naturally dark hair.
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS WHEN FORMULATING FOR GRAY HAIR Client personality Personal preferences Amount and location of gray hair If the majority of the client’s gray hair is located in the front, that section may be 80% gray while the remainder of the head may be only 30% gray. That should be considered when formulating color.
PRESOFTENING Gray hair can be highly resistant and requires presoftening to allow proper penetration of color. This is a double-application process: –presoftener is applied, processed, removed. –Haircolor is applied.
RULES FOR EFFECTIVE COLOR CORRECTION Do not panic. Establish the true problem. Establish the cause of problem. Establish a suitable remedy. Take one step at a time. Never guarantee exact results. Always strand test for accuracy.
DAMAGED HAIR CHARACTERISTICS Rough texture Overporous condition Brittle and dry to touch Susceptible to breakage No elasticity Becomes spongy and matted when wet Color fades or absorbs too rapidly
DAMAGE HAIR TREATMENTS Use a penetrating conditioner to deposit protein, oils, and moisture-rich ingredients. Normalize pH with a finishing rinse. If hair is unresponsive after conditioning treatments, postpone further chemical services and continue treatments until hair is reconditioned. Schedule client for between-service conditioning. Recommend retail products for home maintenance.
FILLERS Specialized preparations designed to help equalize porosity and deposit a base color in one application Two types: –Conditioner fillers Are used to recondition damaged, overly porous hair Can be applied in separate procedure or immediately prior to color application –Color fillers May be demipermanent color used when there is doubt as to even color results
COLOR FILLER ADVANTAGES Deposits color to faded ends Helps hair hold color Prevents streaking and dull appearance Prevents off-color results Produces more uniform, natural-looking color in a tint Produces more uniform color when doing a tint back
SELECTING CORRECT COLOR FILLER Select to replace missing primary color in formulation; all three primaries (yellow, red and blue) must be present for natural- looking hair color Color fillers may be applied directly to hair or mixed with tint and applied to damaged ends.
TIPS FOR REDS Use low-volume hydrogen peroxide. Prelighten darker hair to achieve brighter, warmer reds. Formulate correctly for proper intensity of red. In retouching, use permanent color on new growth and refresh ends with deposit-only color.
BRASSINESS/UNWANTED TONES Analyze brassiness first. Are the brassy tones red, yellow, or orange? Locate that particular shade on the color wheel and use the complementary color to neutralize it. This can be done with temporary rinses, soap caps during retouches, fillers, and semipermanent or demipermanent colors.
TINT REMOVAL Sometimes, there is enough buildup of color on the hair that removal of all or part of it may be necessary to achieve the desired color. Professional products may contain ingredients to diffuse pigment, both natural and artificial. They are sometimes mixed with hydrogen peroxide. Some are mixed with distilled water when milder products are needed. Always follow manufacturers’ directions. Never leave client unattended during a chemical service.
TINT BACK TO NATURAL Porosity must be evened out to achieve color correction. Create warmth to prevent drab, unnatural looking color. Demipermanent, deposit-only color is a great choice. A soap cap is a combination of equal parts of prepared tint and shampoo; apply like a regular shampoo.
HAIRCOLORING SAFETY There are several factors and procedures you should keep in mind when providing haircoloring services that will help ensure quality results and your client’s safety. Administer patch test when using a aniline derivative tint. Do not apply if abrasions are present. Do not apply if metallic or compound tint is present. Do not brush hair prior to service. Read and follow manufacturers’ directions. Use sanitized applicator bottles, brushes, combs, and towels. Drape client properly.
HAIRCOLORING SAFETY Perform strand test; this will alert you to correct color, breakage, and/or discoloration. Use bottle or bowl for mixing tint; use either glass or a plastic bowl. Do not mix until ready to use; discard leftover tint. Wear protective gloves. Don’t let color get in eyes. Do not overlap during retouch. Use mild shampoo. Always wash hands before and after serving each client.
SUMMARY The world of professional haircolor offers unlimited challenges and significant financial returns. Once you’ve mastered the theory and Law of Color as well as all the procedures and techniques, you may choose to specialize as a colorist. All color begins with three primary colors. When two primaries are mixed equally, a secondary is created. All three primaries must be present to create brown. Categories of haircolor are temporary, semipermanent, demipermanent, and permanent. Analyze the level of natural hair color as well as the color level desired. When using an aniline derivative tint, a patch test must be given 24 hours prior to service.
SUMMARY Record all important information on the client’s record card. Proper draping is essential to protect the client’s skin and clothing. Frequent strand testing is recommended to ensure quality results. We learned about special effects and procedures used for highlighting hair. It is important to remember such factors as porosity, foundation color, percentage and location of unpigmented hair, condition of hair, and desired results.