2 Formulating for Gray Coverage Gray hair no longer produces color pigment, which causes the hair to be white.The hair appears gray because of light reflecting any pigmented hair on to the white.
3 Determining Percentage of Gray Gray % Used “N” Series Used0% N/A25% ½ oz50% oz75% ½ oz100% ozIn formulating for gray coverage, it is important to first determine the average amount of gray existing.The gray hair must be filled, (colored) with the “N” series, (Natural tones), reflecting the percentage of gray present.
4 Consider the Areas of Gray Hair on the Client in Formulations… If for instance, a client has the majority of gray hair in the front of the head,(100%) and the rest of gray hair is scattered, (25%), consider the formula closely.A formula for 25% gray will not have good coverage on the area with 100% gray hair. Some cosmetologist would create a two formulas, one for the 100% gray hair and one for the 25% gray.
5 Formulation for Gray Coverage Tips to Remember There are many techniques used for gray coverage. Experience will guide decisions. Some are as follow:Use 20 volume developer.Rough up cuticle with color brush while applying color.Process full recommended time.Clients with a 100% gray usually look better within the blonde range, instead of going darker.High lift blondes are not designed for gray coverage. It is recommended to use a level 7 and add highlights.
6 Tips to Remember Continued… If hair is 80% -100% gray, remember haircolor in the blonde series is usually more flattering than dark haircolors.Applying haircolor to “salt and pepper” hair, will make the pigmented hair appear darker. For this reason, select 1-2 levels lighter than the client’s desired haircolor.
7 Formulation Chart- Using Symbols One way of recording the client’s natural level of a medium brown hair is ‘5N.’ If the client hair is an existing level 5 red, simply write (5R). If the desired color is level 4 red, write (4R). Enter the percentage of gray hair as (%).Example:NL- 5NEL- 5RDL- 4R% - 0By looking at the above, we can quickly see that the client has colored her hair in the past to a level 5 red, but now desires one level darker, 4R and has no gray hair to consider in the formulation.For record keeping and quick reference, use the following codes:FormulaNatural Level – NLExisting Level – ELDesired Level – DL% of Gray - %ColorsN- Natural V-VioletR- Red BV- Blue VioletG- Gold RO-Red OrangeA- Ash RV- Red Violet
8 Formulating For Gray Coverage Example: Natural Level - 5 N Existing Level – 3 R Desired Level - 3 R % of gray hair – 25 % Formulation: 2 oz. 20 vol. developer 1½ oz. 3R Haircolor ½ oz. 3N Haircolor1st – Determine client’s percentage of gray hair.2nd- To achieve gray coverage, remember the percentage of gray hair must be matched by the same percentage of the desire level’s “N” series.3rd – Subtract the percentage needed to cover the gray from 2 oz to determine the amount needed for the desired color.Remember to consider if you need to cancel out any unwanted tones.
9 Color Correction for Redheads Red tones tend to fade the fastest.To create warm coppery reds, use a RO base color.To create fiery reds, use RV or R base color.Use a demi-permanent haircolor to refresh ends from fadage.If gray hair is present, add at least ½ ounce of the N series so the hair does not turn pink.
10 Corrective Color for Brunettes Use a blue base color when lightening brunettes to avoid orange or brassy tones.Do not lighten more than two levels to avoid orange or brassy tones.Add at least ½ ounce of the N series for gray hair.For natural looking highlights with brown hair, choose caramel or gold tones. Blondes have a lot of contrast.
11 Corrective Color for Blondes When highlighting blondes, remember the underlying pigment is gold or yellow.When working with gray and blonde hair, use a level 7 or darker for good coverage.Double-process coloring is the best method to obtain a pale blonde color.To correct unwanted yellow tones when lightening, use violet tones.To correct unwanted orange tones when lightening use blue-violet tones.Remember if hair becomes too blonde all over, you can add low-lights by foiling to create a more natural color.
12 Correcting Green CastFor hair with a green cast, try using a product design to remove the mineral buildup. Use a demi- permanent to neutralize unwanted tones.To avoid chlorine buildup when swimming, have clients wet hair and add a little conditioner to the hair before entering the pool. After getting out of the pool, have client at least rinse hair, if not shampoo immediately.
13 Correcting Hair that is too Dark Use a haircolor remover if too dark to lift unwanted tones.Process 10 minutes and check hair.Remember these removers are designed to remove artificial pigment from the hair.The hair may need a toner, to help neutralize tones.Once desired color is achieved, rinse, shampoo and condition.
14 Cautions when Correcting Color If hair seems to not hold haircolor well, it could be that the hair is too damaged and overly porous.When this occurs, there may be insufficient structure left within the cortex for the artificial pigment to attach to the hair.If hair has a “gun-metal” gray cast, it is a danger sign, the hair may need to be conditioned and cut before a service is provided.Remember all haircolor can be corrected with time and patience.
15 Work CitedMilady’s Standard Cosmetology Textbook, Copyright 2007