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The “Revolution” of 1800 & Jeffersonian Democracy

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Presentation on theme: "The “Revolution” of 1800 & Jeffersonian Democracy"— Presentation transcript:

1 The “Revolution” of 1800 & Jeffersonian Democracy
Thomas Jefferson The “Revolution” of 1800 & Jeffersonian Democracy

2 Election of 1800 Hamilton split with Adams over the War
Hamilton attacks Adams in a pamphlet Jefferson's character attacked Rumored to have children with his slave

3 Election Results: Electoral deadlock Jefferson = 73 Burr = 73
Adams = 65 Pinckney = 64

4 1800 Election Results

5 1800 Election Results (16 states in the Union) Thomas Jefferson
Virginia Democratic-Republican 73 52.9% Aaron Burr New York John Adams Massachusetts Federalist 65 47.1% Charles Pinckney South Carolina 64 46.4% John Jay 1 0.7% Total Number of Electors 138 Total Electoral Votes Cast 276 Number of Votes for a Majority 70

6 Tie vote decided in the House
Most Federalists favored Burr over Jefferson Hamilton sided with Jefferson as the lesser of two evils Burr never forgets

7 1800 Election Results in the House
 1 vote for each State  Thomas Jefferson Virginia Democratic-Republican 10 62.5% Aaron Burr New York 4 25.0% Blank 2 12.5%

8 Jefferson Wins “Revolution of 1800” Burr is VP
Jefferson does not trust him “Revolution of 1800” Peaceful transfer of power seen as revolutionary

9 12th Amendment (1804) Electors must specify that they are voting for one presidential candidate & one vice-presidential candidate

10 End of Federalists John Adams was the last Federalist president
disbanded by 1816 Federalists led the country through tough times & established a strong economy

11 Elitism & fear of the common people put them out of touch with a rapidly changing nation

12 Jefferson: Common Man Jefferson inaugurated as the 3rd President March 4, 1801 in the new capital of Washington, D.C. walked to the Capitol

13 Inaugural Address: “Friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none” “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists”

14 Jefferson as President
“consistently inconsistent” Refused to speak directly to Congress his addresses sent to Congress by a clerk precedent unbroken until Wilson in 1913

15 Does not take a radical new course
Pragmatism over idealism Refused to replace Federalists appointees & give the jobs to Democratic-Republicans

16 Kept Hamilton’s financial program
Increased size of the Bank of US Increased the tariff Repealed excise taxes (whiskey)

17 Reversed some Federalist policies:
Jefferson pardoned those sentenced under the Sedition act New naturalization law of 1802 returned citizenship requirement to 5 years

18 Albert Gallatin appointed Secretary of Treasury
Reduced the debt Reported on the nation’s finances

19 Judiciary Troubles Judiciary Act of 1801
Increased the number of judges Lame-duck President Adams appointed loyal Federalists judges at the last minute

20 These “Midnight” Judges upset Jefferson & the Republicans
“Packing” the courts

21 One was John Marshall as Chief Justice
Would be chief justice through 5 presidents Single-handedly entrenched Federalist principles long after the demise of the Federalists

22 Congress repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801
One appointed judge sued Secretary of State James Madison to force him to deliver his commission

23 Marbury v. Madison, 1803 Marshall ruled part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional “Judicial review” Supreme Court’s right to rule a law unconstitutional Contrasted with VA / KY Resolutions

24 Samuel Chase Impeachment
Republicans in the House brought impeachment charges against Supreme Court justice Samuel Chase

25 Senate failed to find him guilty – lack of evidence
Strengthened the principle of separation of powers

26 Jefferson the Warrior Jefferson feared a standing army
Invitation to dictatorship Decreased army to 2500 Decreased navy as well Only aided the North

27 US Ships attacked by Barbary Coast pirates Pasha of Tripoli
1801: Declared war on US Jefferson sent the Navy & Marine Corps to the “shores of Tripoli” in 1801


29 Later decided to spend the navy budget on “mosquito fleet”
Small boats to defend the coast Proved useless in the War of 1812

30 Louisiana Purchase 1800: Napoleon acquired Louisiana from Spain
1802: Spain withdrew the right of American deposit in New Orleans

31 James Monroe sent to buy New Orleans & Florida for $10 million
Toussaint L’Overture led Haitian Rebellion against French Prompted Napoleon to sell

32 Jefferson reluctantly agreed to buy Louisiana for $15 million
Believed in strict construction - Constitution made no provision for acquiring new territory

33 Federalist Northeast argued as strict constructionists against the acquisition
it would increase the number of agrarian states

34 Significance: Doubled size of US Mississippi River Westward expansion
Ended European expansion Boosted US nationalism

35 Lewis & Clark Expedition
St. Louis to the mouth of Columbia River on the Pacific Ocean Aided by the wife of their French interpreter, a Shoshone named Sacajawea

36 Meriwether Lewis & William Clark


38 Zebulon Pike 1805: explored the northern Mississippi River
1806: went west into Colorado & New Mexico

39 Pike’s Peak, Colorado


41 Aaron Burr & Intrigue Aaron Burr lost the race for Governor of NY & the VP in 1804 Sided with a group of NE Federalist extremists (Essex Junto) wanted NY & NE to secede from the union

42 Plot thwarted by Hamilton
Prompted Burr to challenge Hamilton to a duel Burr killed Hamilton in a duel in 1804 killed the one remaining hope of the Federalist Party

43 Hamilton - Burr Duel

44 1806: Burr tried for treason
Plotted to remove the Louisiana territory from the U.S. Acquitted by John Marshall when 2 witnesses could not be found

45 Decreased the likelihood of finding anyone guilty of treason in the future
Burr’s failure to muster supporters indicated the level of national unity was growing in the west

46 Jefferson’s 2nd Term 1804: Jefferson reelected in a landslide
Republicans had thoroughly usurped the Federalist agenda further weakening the Federalist Party

47 Napoleon Bonaparte

48 Napoleonic Wars British & French fighting threatened to drag the pacifist Jefferson into war Battle of Trafalgar (1805): British Admiral Lord Nelson defeated the French fleet Gave Britain command of the seas

49 Battle of Trafalgar

50 Battle of Austerlitz (1805)
Napoleon victory Gave France command over the European continent Battle of Austerlitz

51 Orders in Council (1806): Berlin & Milan Decrees
British close continental ports controlled by the French Berlin & Milan Decrees Napoleon ordered the seizure of all ships entering British ports

52 British Impressment 1807: Chesapeake Incident
American sailors forced into the Royal Navy 1807: Chesapeake Incident British attack an American navy frigate Americans call for blood

53 Jefferson did not want war Embargo Act of 1807
Army & navy weak Embargo Act of 1807 Jefferson got Congress to impose an embargo Denied US ships the right to trade with Britain & France

54 Both the North & the South suffered
Many in Northeast called for secession & nullification Embargo caused a depression Many backed Federalist candidates


56 Non-Intercourse Act (1809)
passed to replace the Embargo Act Reopened trade with everyone but France & Britain

57 Embargo’s Impacts Not long enough to have a major impact
Cost the US a navy Helped the Federalist Party (briefly) Sparked the Industrial Revolution in America

58 Eventually British textile manufacturers will feel enough pain from non-intercourse they will complain to Parliament

59 Jefferson’s Legacy Expansionist tendencies Avoided European war
Created a democratic non-aristocratic government Total defeat of Federalists Two-term precedent

60 Chose James Madison to succeed him

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