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Thomas Jefferson The “Revolution” of 1800 & Jeffersonian Democracy.

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Presentation on theme: "Thomas Jefferson The “Revolution” of 1800 & Jeffersonian Democracy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thomas Jefferson The “Revolution” of 1800 & Jeffersonian Democracy

2 Election of 1800  Hamilton split with Adams over the War  Hamilton attacks Adams in a pamphlet  Jefferson's character attacked  Rumored to have children with his slave

3  Election Results:  Electoral deadlock  Jefferson = 73  Burr = 73  Adams = 65  Pinckney = 64

4 1800 Election Results

5 (16 states in the Union) Thomas JeffersonVirginia Democratic- Republican % Aaron BurrNew York Democratic- Republican % John AdamsMassachusettsFederalist6547.1% Charles PinckneySouth CarolinaFederalist6446.4% John JayNew YorkFederalist 1 0.7% Total Number of Electors138 Total Electoral Votes Cast276 Number of Votes for a Majority Election Results

6  Tie vote decided in the House  Most Federalists favored Burr over Jefferson  Hamilton sided with Jefferson as the lesser of two evils  Burr never forgets

7  1 vote for each State  Thomas JeffersonVirginiaDemocratic-Republican1062.5% Aaron BurrNew YorkDemocratic-Republican 425.0% Blank % 1800 Election Results in the House

8  Jefferson Wins  Burr is VP  Jefferson does not trust him  “Revolution of 1800”  Peaceful transfer of power seen as revolutionary

9  12 th Amendment (1804)  Electors must specify that they are voting for one presidential candidate & one vice-presidential candidate

10 End of Federalists  John Adams was the last Federalist president  disbanded by 1816  Federalists led the country through tough times & established a strong economy

11  Elitism & fear of the common people put them out of touch with a rapidly changing nation

12  Jefferson inaugurated as the 3 rd President March 4, 1801 in the new capital of Washington, D.C.  walked to the Capitol Jefferson: Common Man

13  Inaugural Address:  “Friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none”  “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists”

14 Jefferson as President  “consistently inconsistent”  Refused to speak directly to Congress  his addresses sent to Congress by a clerk  precedent unbroken until Wilson in 1913

15  Does not take a radical new course  Pragmatism over idealism  Refused to replace Federalists appointees & give the jobs to Democratic- Republicans

16  Kept Hamilton’s financial program  Increased size of the Bank of US  Increased the tariff  Repealed excise taxes (whiskey)

17  Reversed some Federalist policies:  Jefferson pardoned those sentenced under the Sedition act  New naturalization law of 1802 returned citizenship requirement to 5 years

18  Albert Gallatin appointed Secretary of Treasury  Reduced the debt  Reported on the nation’s finances

19 Judiciary Troubles  Judiciary Act of 1801  Increased the number of judges  Lame-duck President Adams appointed loyal Federalists judges at the last minute

20  These “Midnight” Judges upset Jefferson & the Republicans  “Packing” the courts

21  One was John Marshall as Chief Justice  Would be chief justice through 5 presidents  Single-handedly entrenched Federalist principles long after the demise of the Federalists

22  Congress repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801  One appointed judge sued Secretary of State James Madison to force him to deliver his commission

23  Marbury v. Madison, 1803  Marshall ruled part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional  “Judicial review”  Supreme Court’s right to rule a law unconstitutional  Contrasted with VA / KY Resolutions

24  Samuel Chase Impeachment  Republicans in the House brought impeachment charges against Supreme Court justice Samuel Chase

25  Senate failed to find him guilty – lack of evidence  Strengthened the principle of separation of powers

26 Jefferson the Warrior  Jefferson feared a standing army  Invitation to dictatorship  Decreased army to 2500  Decreased navy as well  Only aided the North

27  US Ships attacked by Barbary Coast pirates  Pasha of Tripoli  1801: Declared war on US  Jefferson sent the Navy & Marine Corps to the “shores of Tripoli” in 1801

28

29  Later decided to spend the navy budget on “mosquito fleet”  Small boats to defend the coast  Proved useless in the War of 1812

30 Louisiana Purchase  1800: Napoleon acquired Louisiana from Spain  1802: Spain withdrew the right of American deposit in New Orleans

31  James Monroe sent to buy New Orleans & Florida for $10 million  Toussaint L’Overture led Haitian Rebellion against French  Prompted Napoleon to sell

32  Jefferson reluctantly agreed to buy Louisiana for $15 million  Believed in strict construction - Constitution made no provision for acquiring new territory

33  Federalist Northeast argued as strict constructionists against the acquisition  it would increase the number of agrarian states

34  Significance:  Doubled size of US  Mississippi River  Westward expansion  Ended European expansion  Boosted US nationalism

35  Lewis & Clark Expedition   St. Louis to the mouth of Columbia River on the Pacific Ocean  Aided by the wife of their French interpreter, a Shoshone named Sacajawea

36 Meriwether Lewis & William Clark

37

38  Zebulon Pike  1805: explored the northern Mississippi River  1806: went west into Colorado & New Mexico

39 Pike’s Peak, Colorado

40

41 Aaron Burr & Intrigue  Aaron Burr lost the race for Governor of NY & the VP in 1804  Sided with a group of NE Federalist extremists (Essex Junto)  wanted NY & NE to secede from the union

42  Plot thwarted by Hamilton  Prompted Burr to challenge Hamilton to a duel  Burr killed Hamilton in a duel in 1804  killed the one remaining hope of the Federalist Party

43 Hamilton - Burr Duel

44  1806: Burr tried for treason  Plotted to remove the Louisiana territory from the U.S.  Acquitted by John Marshall when 2 witnesses could not be found

45  Decreased the likelihood of finding anyone guilty of treason in the future  Burr’s failure to muster supporters indicated the level of national unity was growing in the west

46 Jefferson’s 2 nd Term  1804: Jefferson reelected in a landslide  Republicans had thoroughly usurped the Federalist agenda further weakening the Federalist Party

47 Napoleon Bonaparte

48  Napoleonic Wars  British & French fighting threatened to drag the pacifist Jefferson into war  Battle of Trafalgar (1805):  British Admiral Lord Nelson defeated the French fleet  Gave Britain command of the seas

49 Battle of Trafalgar

50  Battle of Austerlitz (1805)  Napoleon victory  Gave France command over the European continent Battle of Austerlitz

51  Orders in Council (1806):  British close continental ports controlled by the French  Berlin & Milan Decrees  Napoleon ordered the seizure of all ships entering British ports

52  British Impressment  American sailors forced into the Royal Navy  1807: Chesapeake Incident  British attack an American navy frigate  Americans call for blood

53  Jefferson did not want war  Army & navy weak  Embargo Act of 1807  Jefferson got Congress to impose an embargo  Denied US ships the right to trade with Britain & France

54  Both the North & the South suffered  Many in Northeast called for secession & nullification  Embargo caused a depression  Many backed Federalist candidates

55 The OGRABME

56  Non-Intercourse Act (1809)  passed to replace the Embargo Act  Reopened trade with everyone but France & Britain

57  Embargo’s Impacts  Not long enough to have a major impact  Cost the US a navy  Helped the Federalist Party (briefly)  Sparked the Industrial Revolution in America

58  Eventually British textile manufacturers will feel enough pain from non- intercourse they will complain to Parliament

59 Jefferson’s Legacy  Expansionist tendencies  Avoided European war  Created a democratic non- aristocratic government  Total defeat of Federalists  Two-term precedent

60  Chose James Madison to succeed him


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