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The Jeffersonian Presidency. The Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson John Adams.

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Presentation on theme: "The Jeffersonian Presidency. The Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson John Adams."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Jeffersonian Presidency

2 The Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson John Adams

3 The Election of 1800 Issues: –The Alien and Sedition Acts –Hamilton’s financial system –“character issues”

4 The Election of 1800 Results: Tie between TJ and Burr No winner in the Electoral College Multiple ballots in the House Role of Hamilton Persuades Federalists in NY to abstain Gives TJ enough States to win House vote

5 “The Revolution of 1800” Democrat-Republican victory First peaceful transition of power from one party to the other in history Beginning of the end for the Federalist Party

6 The Moderation of Thomas Jefferson Kept most of the Hamiltonian system Kept the tariff and the Bank of the United States Dropped only the tax on whiskey

7 TJ vs. the Supreme Court Role of Chief Justice John Marshall Last Federalist in power Use of strong federal power “Loose” interpretation of the Constitution Drama Alert : he and Jefferson are 2 nd cousins

8 Marbury v. Madison (1803) Marbury promised a Justice of the Peace position in Vermont (one of Adams’ “midnight appointments”) Jefferson instructs new Secretary of State Madison not to deliver it.

9 Judicial Review Marshall rules in favor of Marbury First use of “judicial review” (the ability of the Courts to rule on acts of the President or of Congress) Expansion of federal power

10 TJ Retaliates Against the Court! The impeachment of Samuel Chase –Republicans disagreed with handling of a trial of a Pennsylvania farmers’ tax revolt –“high crimes and misdemeanors” Impeached by the Republican House Acquitted by the Senate –Crisis averted Balance of powers preserved –Assures an independent judiciary –Not to be influenced by partisanship

11 The Louisiana Purchase

12 Original mission: Purchase of New Orleans and West Florida for $10m Napoleon’s offer Louisiana Territory for $15m (3 cents an acre)

13 The Louisiana Purchase Constitutional issues: No authority in Con. To purchase land Negotiations done in secret Accusations by Feds of hypocrisy TJ’s response: Proposed Constitutional amendment DRs ignore it and buy the land

14 Impact of the Louisiana Purchase Doubled size of the Republic Gained access to the Mississippi River Ended (hopefully) possibility of re-invasion by Britain

15 Lewis and Clark Purposes: To explore and map new territories To contact the various tribes Scientific survey Lewis Clark

16 The Corps of Discovery Made up of former Army Regulars

17 Lewis and Clark Role of Sacagawea Impact: size of country established treaties signed with tribes new species discovered led to westward expansion

18 The “Mosquito Fleet” Create a fleet of smaller gunboats Rationale: –Less costly –Prevents possible tyranny Long Term Impact: less able to defend US against the British

19 Election of 1804 Jefferson vs. Charles Pinckney Decline of the Federalist Party: Less able to attract Western voters Too elitist Geographically locked in with New England Older generation

20 Renewed Problems with Britain (AGAIN!) Renewed impressment of American sailors British harassment of US trade Conflicts with Indians in the West The “Chesapeake-Leopard Incident”

21 The Embargo Act of 1807 Total ban on trade with all countries No support for either France or Britain

22 Reaction to the Embargo Act Smuggling and piracy TJ unpopular Repeal by Congress (Feb. 1807)

23 Jefferson’s Legacy PositivePositive –LA Purchase –Lewis and Clark –Increased democratization –Moderation in governing NegativeNegative –“mosquito fleet” –Embargo Act –Attempted impeachment of SC Justice

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