Presentation on theme: "Thomas Jefferson. 1. Background and Education Like most sons of land owners, he studied land surveying Graduated from William and Mary University in Williamsburg,"— Presentation transcript:
1. Background and Education Like most sons of land owners, he studied land surveying Graduated from William and Mary University in Williamsburg, VA Tall quiet
2. Political Beliefs The government which governs least, governs best Strongly favored States Rights as opposed to a strong national government Believed in a strict construction, or strict interpretation, of the U.S.Constitution
3. Accomplishments Prior to becoming President Wrote the first draft of the Declaration of Independence Created the University of Virginia Served as an ambassador to Europe from the United States
4. The Election of 1800 Democratic-Republican Candidates: Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr
4. The Election of 1800 Federalist Candidates: John Adams and Charles C. Pinckney
4. The Election of 1800 Adams would have won re-election, perhaps easily, had Alexander Hamilton not split the Federalist Party
4. The Election of 1800 Instead, the Democratic-Republicans won the election Both winning candidates, Jefferson and Burr, received 73 electoral votes Election was settled the House of Representatives after 35 votes Hamilton swings the election to Jefferson and angers Burr
4. The Election of 1800 The messed up election pointed out the need for a Constitutional amendment regarding the Presidential election process. The 12 th Amendment modified the Constitution so that the President and the Vice-President are elected using separate ballots.
4. The Election of 1800 John Adams, the 1 st President to live in Washington, D.C., leaves before Jefferson’s inauguration The unfinished White House and Capitol were just about the only buildings in town
4. The Election of 1800 Federalists fear what Jefferson will say— will he start a new revolution? Jefferson, surprisingly, calls for unity—he states “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.” Jefferson DOES NOT propose to change or destroy the structure of the federal government.
5. Accomplishments made during early part of Jefferson’s 1 st term Cut military spending Reduced national debt from $83 million to $45 million
5. Accomplishments made during early part of Jefferson’s 1 st term Only source of government income: tariffs and sales of Western land Let the Alien and Sedition Acts expire
6. Issues with the Courts Marbury vs. Madison Marbury, one of John Adams’ last minute “midnight judges,” receive his commission to be judge or not? Jefferson had James Madison refuse to give the commission to Marbury Issue went before the Supreme Court Ruling became a precedent—an example for future court cases
6. Issues with the Courts With Marbury vs. Madison, the Supreme Court established the concept of “Judicial Review” of laws Judicial Review means that the Court may decide if a law is constitutional or not. If a law is judged to be unconstitutional, or goes against the U.S. Constitution, then the law ceases to be a law.
7. The Louisiana Purchase By 1800, the western boundary of the U.S. was the Mississippi. The Louisiana Territory, that is all lands west of the Mississippi River which drained into the river, was originally controlled by France. As part of losing the French-Indian War, France ceded, or gave, the Louisiana Territory to Spain
7. The Louisiana Purchase The Louisiana Territory continued to be controlled by Spain until 1800. A war fought in Europe between Spain and France ended with a victory for Napoleon and the French. Secretly, the Louisiana Territory was transferred from Spain to France as a result of that European war.
7. The Louisiana Purchase Jefferson learned that Louisiana Territory was now controlled by France
7. The Louisiana Purchase The other major problem involved the city of New Orleans. New Orleans controlled all river trade. River trade came from not only the Louisiana Territory, but also from the United States. If France decided to close the city of New Orleans to U.S. trade, then the U.S. would suffer great economic hardship.
7. The Louisiana Purchase Jefferson realized the problems involved with France owning the Louisiana Territory.
7. The Louisiana Purchase Congress debates the issue—lots of money involved—still, they agree to it.
7. The Louisiana Purchase Napoleon also needs money for another war with Great Britain. He decides to sell ALL of the Louisiana Territory. His price: $15 million.
8. Jefferson’s Re-election By 1804, Jefferson was unquestioned success as a President. He was easily reelected. Burr decided to run for governor of New York. Hamilton criticized Burr; Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel; Burr shoots and kills Hamilton. Burr’s term as Vice President was not quite over at the time of the duel.
10. Jefferson’s 2 nd Term Pirates from the Barbary Coast States in the Mediterranean Sea demand tribute from U.S. trade ships. Jefferson refuses to pay the tribute The Barbary pirates from Tripoli declare war on the U.S. Jefferson does not want to fight; instead, he orders a blockade of the port of Tripoli.
10. Jefferson’s 2 nd Term The blockade eventually works. The U.S. forces the pirates to sign a peace treaty which ends all tribute payments. The military action is popular in the U.S., but shows the need for a U.S. navy.
10. Jefferson’s 2 nd Term Great Britain continues its policy of impressment. Impressment is when the British kidnap U.S. sailors and force them to work as British sailors.
10. Jefferson’s 2 nd Term Jefferson deals with the impressment issue by asking for an embargo, or block of trade, against both Great Britain and France. Congress passes the Embargo Act of 1807. The main victim of the law was neither Great Britain nor France—it was the U.S. merchants who could no longer trade with either country.
10. Jefferson’s 2 nd Term The Embargo Act proves EXTREMELY unpopular and Jefferson’s popularity suffers as a result. Eventually, Congress repealed the Embargo Act and replaced it with the Non-Intercourse Act. The Non-Intercourse Act was no more successful than the Embargo Act. American merchants and shipowners suffered greatly. Jefferson leaves office with a loss of respect.
11. Jefferson after the Presidency James Madison, the author of the Constitution, a Democratic-Republican, and Jefferson’s hand- picked successor becomes the next President. Madison leads the country during the War of 1812.
11. Jefferson after the Presidency Jefferson renews his friendship with his long-term friend and political rival, John Adams. Jefferson and Adams exchange tons of letters with each other. Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both die on the same day: July 4, 1826. It was the 50 th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence which both men help write.