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PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Joints: Part A.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Joints: Part A."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Joints: Part A

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Joint Classification Joints are classified in 2 primary ways: Structurally Focuses on the material binding the joint together Whether a joint capsule is present or not Functionally Based on the amount of movement allowed

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Joints (Articulations) Articulation—site where two or more bones meet Functions of joints:  Give skeleton mobility  Hold skeleton together

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Functional Classification of Joints Based on amount of movement allowed by the joint Three functional classifications:  Synarthroses—immovable  Amphiarthroses—slightly movable  Diarthroses—freely movable

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Structural Classification of Joints Based on material binding bones together and whether or not a joint cavity is present Three structural classifications:  Fibrous  Cartilaginous  Synovial

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Fibrous Joints Bones joined by dense fibrous connective tissue No joint cavity Most are synarthrotic (immovable) Three types:  Sutures  Syndesmoses  Gomphoses

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Fibrous Joints: Sutures Rigid, interlocking joints containing short connective tissue fibers Allow for growth during youth In middle age, sutures ossify and are called synostoses

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1a Dense fibrous connective tissue Suture line (a) Suture Joint held together with very short, interconnecting fibers, and bone edges interlock. Found only in the skull.

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Fibrous Joints: Syndesmoses Bones connected by ligaments (bands of fibrous tissue) Movement varies from immovable to slightly movable Examples:  Synarthrotic distal tibiofibular joint  Diarthrotic interosseous connection between radius and ulna

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1b Fibula Tibia Ligament (b) Syndesmosis Joint held together by a ligament. Fibrous tissue can vary in length, but is longer than in sutures.

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Fibrous Joints: Gomphoses Peg-in-socket joints of teeth in alveolar sockets Fibrous connection is the periodontal ligament

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1c Root of tooth Socket of alveolar process Periodontal ligament (c) Gomphosis “Peg in socket” fibrous joint. Periodontal ligament holds tooth in socket.

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Cartilaginous Joints Bones united by cartilage No joint cavity Two types:  Synchondroses  Symphyses

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Cartilaginous Joints: Synchondroses A bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones All are synarthrotic

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.2a Epiphyseal plate (temporary hyaline cartilage joint) Sternum (manubrium) Joint between first rib and sternum (immovable) (a) Synchondroses Bones united by hyaline cartilage

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Cartilaginous Joints: Symphyses Hyaline cartilage covers the articulating surfaces and is fused to a pad of fibrocartilage Strong, flexible Amphiarthotic

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.2b Fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc Pubic symphysis Body of vertebra Hyaline cartilage (b) Symphyses Bones united by fibrocartilage

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Let’s Review! -- Answer these questions on a separate sheet of paper and turn them in when you’re done What is a synonym for “joint”? Answer: Articulation What functional joint class contains the least moveable joints? Answer: Synarthroses Of sutures, symphyses, and synchondroses, which are cartilaginous joints? Answer: Symphyses & synchondroses How are joint mobility and stability related? Answer: In general, the more mobile a joint, the less stable the joint is

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints  Joints in which the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity. All are diarthrotic Include all limb joints; most joints of the body

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints Distinguishing features: 1.Articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage 2.Joint (synovial) cavity: small potential space 3.Articular (joint) capsule: 2 Layers Outer fibrous capsule of dense irregular connective tissue (strengthens the joint) Inner synovial membrane of loose connective tissue (protects all portions of joint not covered by hyaline cartilage)

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints Distinguishing features: 4.Synovial fluid: Viscous slippery fluid of plasma + hyaluronic acid Lubricates and nourishes articular cartilage (remember…cartilage is avascular!) Also located within the articular cartilage and is squeezed out when pressure is applied and absorbed back in during rest

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.3 Periosteum Ligament Fibrous capsule Synovial membrane Joint cavity (contains synovial fluid) Articular (hyaline) cartilage Articular capsule

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints Distinguishing features: 5.Three possible types of reinforcing ligaments: Capsular (intrinsic)—part of the fibrous capsule Extracapsular—outside the capsule Intracapsular—deep to capsule; covered by synovial membrane

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints Distinguishing features: 6.Rich nerve and blood vessel supply: Nerve fibers detect pain, monitor joint position and stretch to help maintain muscle tone Capillary beds produce filtrate for synovial fluid

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints: Friction- Reducing Structures Bursae: Flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes Contain synovial fluid Commonly act as “ball bearings” where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.4b Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Cavity in bursa containing synovial fluid Bursa rolls and lessens friction. Humerus head rolls medially as arm abducts. (b) Enlargement of (a), showing how a bursa eliminates friction where a ligament (or other structure) would rub against a bone Humerus resting Humerus moving

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints: Friction-Reducing Structures Tendon sheath: Elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon Common where several tendons are crowded together within narrow canals (wrist)

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.4a Acromion of scapula Joint cavity containing synovial fluid Synovial membrane Fibrous capsule Humerus Hyaline cartilage Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Fibrous articular capsule Tendon sheath Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle (a) Frontal section through the right shoulder joint

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Stabilizing Factors at Synovial Joints: 3 factors 1.Shapes of articular surfaces (minor role) 2.Ligament number and location (limited role) Typically, the more ligaments a joint has, the more stable 3.Muscle tone, which keeps tendons that cross the joint taut Extremely important in reinforcing shoulder and knee joints and arches of the foot

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. List the 6 types of synovial joints and give an example of each one Classify the interosseous membrane between radius and ulna both structurally and functionally

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints: Movement Muscle attachments across a joint:  Origin—attachment to the immovable bone  Insertion—attachment to the movable bone Muscle contraction causes the insertion to move toward the origin Movements occur along transverse, frontal, or sagittal planes

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints: Range of Motion Nonaxial —slipping movements only (wrists) Uniaxial —movement in one plane (fingertips) Biaxial —movement in two planes (knucles) Multiaxial —movement in or around all three planes (shoulder)

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary of Characteristics of Body Joints Consult Pages Table 8.2 for: Joint names Articulating bones Structural classification Functional classification Movements allowed

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 8.2 (1 of 4)

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 8.2 (2 of 4)

36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 8.2 (3 of 4)

37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 8.2 (4 of 4)

38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Movements at Synovial Joints 1.Gliding (wrist) 2.Angular movements: Flexion, extension, hyperextension Abduction, adduction Circumduction 3.Rotation Medial and lateral rotation of a bone on it’s own axis (hip)

39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Movements at Synovial Joints 4.Special movements Supination, pronation Dorsiflexion, plantar flexion of the foot Inversion, eversion Protraction, retraction Elevation, depression Opposition

40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Gliding Movements One flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface Examples: Intercarpal joints Intertarsal joints Between articular processes of vertebrae

41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5a Gliding (a) Gliding movements at the wrist

42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Angular Movements Movements that occur along the sagittal plane: Flexion—decreases the angle of the joint Extension— increases the angle of the joint Hyperextension—excessive extension beyond normal range of motion

43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5b (b) Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension of the neck HyperextensionExtension Flexion

44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5c Hyperextension Flexion Extension (c) Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension of the vertebral column

45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5d Extension Flexion (d) Angular movements: flexion and extension at the shoulder and knee

46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Angular Movements Movements that occur along the frontal plane: Abduction —movement away from the midline Adduction —movement toward the midline Circumduction —flexion + abduction + extension + adduction of a limb so as to describe a cone in space

47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5e Abduction Adduction (e) Angular movements: abduction, adduction, and circumduction of the upper limb at the shoulder Circumduction

48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Rotation The turning of a bone around its own long axis Examples:  Between C 1 and C 2 vertebrae  Rotation of humerus and femur

49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5f Lateral rotation Medial rotation Rotation (f) Rotation of the head, neck, and lower limb

50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Movements of radius around ulna:  Supination (turning hand backward)  Pronation (turning hand forward)

51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6a Supination (radius and ulna are parallel) (a) Pronation (P) and supination (S) Pronation (radius rotates over ulna)

52 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Movements of the foot:  Dorsiflexion (upward movement)  Plantar flexion (downward movement)

53 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6b Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion (b) Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion

54 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Movements of the foot: Inversion (turn sole medially) Eversion (turn sole laterally)

55 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6c Eversion Inversion (c) Inversion and eversion

56 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Movements in a transverse plane: Protraction (anterior movement) Retraction (posterior movement)

57 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6d Protraction of mandible Retraction of mandible (d) Protraction and retraction

58 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Elevation (lifting a body part superiorly) Depression (moving a body part inferiorly)

59 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6e Elevation of mandible Depression of mandible (e) Elevation and depression

60 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Opposition of the thumb  Movement in the saddle joint so that the thumb touches the tips of the other fingers

61 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6f (f) Opposition Opposition

62 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Let’s Practice! Abduct shoulders bilaterally Flex wrists bilaterally Slightly flex dominant lower limb Simultaneously flex non-dominant hip and knee Plantar flex non-dominant foot

63 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Excellent Daniel-san!!!!!!

64 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Now it’s your turn! Recreate your favorite dance moves or crazy, school-appropriate pose for the class to demonstrate using proper anatomical terms and joint movements. Everyone should begin in anatomic position and you will direct them from there! You have 15 minutes…Have Fun!


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