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Articulating your body

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Presentation on theme: "Articulating your body"— Presentation transcript:

1 Articulating your body
Joints Articulating your body

2 Joints (Articulations)
Weakest parts of the skeleton Articulation – site where two or more bones meet Functions of joints Give the skeleton mobility Hold the skeleton together

3 Classification of Joints: Structural
Structural classification focuses on the material between bones Whether or not a joint cavity is present The three structural classifications are: Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial

4 Classification of Joints: Functional
Functional classification is based on the amount of movement allowed by the joint The three functional classes of joints are: Synarthroses – immovable Amphiarthroses – slightly movable Diarthroses – freely movable

5 Fibrous Structural Joints
The bones are joined by fibrous tissues There is no joint cavity Most are immovable There are three types Sutures Syndesmoses gomphoses

6 Sutures Figure 8.1a

7 Sutures Occur between the bones of the skull
Comprised of interlocking junctions completely filled with connective tissue fibers Bind bones tightly together, but allow for growth during youth In middle age, skull bones fuse and are called synostoses

8 Syndesmoses Figure 8.1b

9 Syndesmoses Bones are connected by a fibrous tissue ligament
Movement varies from immovable to slightly variable

10 Gomphoses The peg-in-socket fibrous joint between a tooth and its alveolar socket The fibrous connection is the periodontal ligament

11 Cartilaginous Joints Articulating bones are united by cartilage
Lack a joint cavity Two types – synchondroses and symphyses

12 Synchondroses Figure 8.2a, b

13 Synchondroses A bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones
All synchondroses are synarthrotic

14 Symphyses Figure 8.2c

15 Symphyses Hyaline cartilage covers the articulating surface of the bone and is fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage Amphiarthrotic joints designed for strength and flexibility

16 Synovial Joints Those joints in which the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity All are freely movable diarthroses Examples – all limb joints, and most joints of the body

17 General Structure Synovial joints all have the following
Articular cartilage Joint (synovial) cavity Articular capsule Synovial fluid Reinforcing ligaments

18 General Structure Figure 8.3a, b

19 Friction-Reducing Structures
Bursae – flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and containing synovial fluid Common where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together Tendon sheath – elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon

20 Friction-Reducing Structures
Figure 8.4

21 Range of Motion Nonaxial – slipping movements only
Uniaxial – movement in one plane Biaxial – movement in two planes Multiaxial – movement in or around all three planes

22 Stability Determined by: Ligaments Muscle tone is accomplished by:
Articular surfaces shape determines what movements are possible Ligaments unite bones and prevent excessive or undesirable motion Muscle tone is accomplished by: Muscle tendons across joints acting as stabilizing factors Tendons that are kept tight at all times by muscle tone

23 Range of Motion Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial
slipping movements only Uniaxial movement in one plane Biaxial movement in two planes Multiaxial movement in or around all three planes

24 Gliding Movements One flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface Examples – intercarpal and intertarsal joints, and between the flat articular processes of the vertebrae

25 Gliding Movement Figure 8.5a

26 Angular Movement Flexion Extension
bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint Extension reverse of flexion; joint angle is increased

27 Angular Movement Figure 8.5b

28 Knee

29 Angular Movement Figure 8.5c, d

30 Angular Movement Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion Abduction Adduction
up and down movement of the foot Abduction movement away from the midline Adduction movement toward the midline Circumduction movement describes a cone in space

31 Angular Movement Figure 8.5e, f

32 Rotation The turning of a bone around its own long axis Examples
Between first two vertebrae Hip and shoulder joints Figure 8.5g

33 Special Movements Supination and pronation Inversion and eversion
Protraction and retraction Elevation and depression Opposition

34 Special Movements Figure 8.6a

35 Special Movements Figure 8.6b

36 Special Movements Figure 8.6c

37 Special Movements Figure 8.6d

38 Special Movements Figure 8.6e

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