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Joints Articulating your body. Joints (Articulations) Weakest parts of the skeleton Weakest parts of the skeleton Articulation – site where two or more.

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Presentation on theme: "Joints Articulating your body. Joints (Articulations) Weakest parts of the skeleton Weakest parts of the skeleton Articulation – site where two or more."— Presentation transcript:

1 Joints Articulating your body

2 Joints (Articulations) Weakest parts of the skeleton Weakest parts of the skeleton Articulation – site where two or more bones meet Articulation – site where two or more bones meet Functions of joints Functions of joints Give the skeleton mobility Give the skeleton mobility Hold the skeleton together Hold the skeleton together

3 Classification of Joints: Structural Structural classification Structural classification focuses on the material between bones focuses on the material between bones Whether or not a joint cavity is present Whether or not a joint cavity is present The three structural classifications are: The three structural classifications are: Fibrous Fibrous Cartilaginous Cartilaginous Synovial Synovial

4 Classification of Joints: Functional Functional classification is based on the amount of movement allowed by the joint Functional classification is based on the amount of movement allowed by the joint The three functional classes of joints are: The three functional classes of joints are: Synarthroses – immovable Synarthroses – immovable Amphiarthroses – slightly movable Amphiarthroses – slightly movable Diarthroses – freely movable Diarthroses – freely movable

5 Fibrous Structural Joints The bones are joined by fibrous tissues The bones are joined by fibrous tissues There is no joint cavity There is no joint cavity Most are immovable Most are immovable There are three types There are three types Sutures Sutures Syndesmoses Syndesmoses gomphoses gomphoses

6 Sutures Figure 8.1a

7 Sutures Occur between the bones of the skull Occur between the bones of the skull Comprised of interlocking junctions completely filled with connective tissue fibers Comprised of interlocking junctions completely filled with connective tissue fibers Bind bones tightly together, but allow for growth during youth Bind bones tightly together, but allow for growth during youth In middle age, skull bones fuse and are called synostoses In middle age, skull bones fuse and are called synostoses

8 Syndesmoses Figure 8.1b

9 Syndesmoses Bones are connected by a fibrous tissue ligament Bones are connected by a fibrous tissue ligament Movement varies from immovable to slightly variable Movement varies from immovable to slightly variable

10 Gomphoses The peg-in-socket fibrous joint between a tooth and its alveolar socket The peg-in-socket fibrous joint between a tooth and its alveolar socket The fibrous connection is the periodontal ligament The fibrous connection is the periodontal ligament

11 Cartilaginous Joints Articulating bones are united by cartilage Articulating bones are united by cartilage Lack a joint cavity Lack a joint cavity Two types – synchondroses and symphyses Two types – synchondroses and symphyses

12 Synchondroses Figure 8.2a, b

13 Synchondroses A bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones A bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones All synchondroses are synarthrotic All synchondroses are synarthrotic

14 Symphyses Figure 8.2c

15 Symphyses Hyaline cartilage covers the articulating surface of the bone and is fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage Hyaline cartilage covers the articulating surface of the bone and is fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage Amphiarthrotic joints designed for strength and flexibility Amphiarthrotic joints designed for strength and flexibility

16 Synovial Joints Those joints in which the articulating bones are separated by a fluid- containing joint cavity Those joints in which the articulating bones are separated by a fluid- containing joint cavity All are freely movable diarthroses All are freely movable diarthroses Examples – all limb joints, and most joints of the body Examples – all limb joints, and most joints of the body

17 General Structure Synovial joints all have the following Synovial joints all have the following Articular cartilage Articular cartilage Joint (synovial) cavity Joint (synovial) cavity Articular capsule Articular capsule Synovial fluid Synovial fluid Reinforcing ligaments Reinforcing ligaments

18 General Structure Figure 8.3a, b

19 Friction-Reducing Structures Bursae – flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and containing synovial fluid Bursae – flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and containing synovial fluid Common where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together Common where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together Tendon sheath – elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon Tendon sheath – elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon

20 Friction-Reducing Structures Figure 8.4

21 Range of Motion Nonaxial – slipping movements only Nonaxial – slipping movements only Uniaxial – movement in one plane Uniaxial – movement in one plane Biaxial – movement in two planes Biaxial – movement in two planes Multiaxial – movement in or around all three planes Multiaxial – movement in or around all three planes

22 Stability Determined by: Determined by: Articular surfaces Articular surfaces shape determines what movements are possible shape determines what movements are possible Ligaments Ligaments unite bones and prevent excessive or undesirable motion unite bones and prevent excessive or undesirable motion Muscle tone is accomplished by: Muscle tone is accomplished by: Muscle tendons across joints acting as stabilizing factors Muscle tendons across joints acting as stabilizing factors Tendons that are kept tight at all times by muscle tone Tendons that are kept tight at all times by muscle tone

23 Range of Motion Nonaxial Nonaxial slipping movements only slipping movements only Uniaxial Uniaxial movement in one plane movement in one plane Biaxial Biaxial movement in two planes movement in two planes Multiaxial Multiaxial movement in or around all three planes movement in or around all three planes

24 Gliding Movements One flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface One flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface Examples – intercarpal and intertarsal joints, and between the flat articular processes of the vertebrae Examples – intercarpal and intertarsal joints, and between the flat articular processes of the vertebrae

25 Gliding Movement Figure 8.5a

26 Angular Movement Flexion Flexion bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint Extension Extension reverse of flexion; joint angle is increased reverse of flexion; joint angle is increased

27 Angular Movement Figure 8.5b

28 Knee

29 Angular Movement Figure 8.5c, d

30 Angular Movement Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion up and down movement of the foot up and down movement of the foot Abduction Abduction movement away from the midline movement away from the midline Adduction Adduction movement toward the midline movement toward the midline Circumduction Circumduction movement describes a cone in space movement describes a cone in space

31 Angular Movement Figure 8.5e, f

32 Rotation The turning of a bone around its own long axis The turning of a bone around its own long axis Examples Examples Between first two vertebrae Between first two vertebrae Hip and shoulder joints Hip and shoulder joints Figure 8.5g

33 Special Movements Supination and pronation Supination and pronation Inversion and eversion Inversion and eversion Protraction and retraction Protraction and retraction Elevation and depression Elevation and depression Opposition Opposition

34 Special Movements Figure 8.6a

35 Special Movements Figure 8.6b

36 Special Movements Figure 8.6c

37 Special Movements Figure 8.6d

38 Special Movements Figure 8.6e


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