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Anatomy of Bones and Joints

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1 Anatomy of Bones and Joints
Chapter 7 Anatomy of Bones and Joints Bone Trabeculae Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 Articulations place where 2 bones come together
Joints have varying degrees of movement named according to bones or parts of bones involved

3 Classes of Joints according to 3 Types Function
Type of connective tissue that binds bones together Presence or absence of fluid between the bones 3 Types Fibrous joints Cartilaginous joints Synovial joints

4 Classes of Joints 1. Fibrous Joints
bones are connected by fibrous tissue with no joint cavity (capable of little or no movement) Sutures involve interdigitating bones held together by dense fibrous connective tissue (occur between most skull bones) Syndesmoses with fibrous ligaments (ex = radius and ulna) Gomphoses pegs fit into sockets and are held in place by periodontal ligaments (teeth in the jaws) Synostoses possible ossification of some sutures and other joints

5 Fig 7.38

6 Fig 7.39

7 Fig 7.40

8 Classes of Joints 2. Cartilaginous Joints Synchondroses Symphyses
bones are joined by hyaline cartilage Ex. Epiphyseal plates Symphyses slightly movable joints made of fibrocartilage Ex. Pubic symphysis

9 Tab. 7.7

10 Classes of Joints 3. Synovial Joints capable of considerable movement
consist of Articular cartilage on ends of bones smooth surface for articulation Articular disks and menisci can provide additional support joint cavity surrounded by a joint capsule of fibrous connective tissue holds bones together while permitting flexibility synovial membrane produces synovial fluid lubricates the joint

11 Fig 7.41

12 Classes of Joints Synovial Joints
Bursae: extensions of synovial joints that protect skin, tendons, or bone from structures that could rub against them Synovial joints are classified according to the shape of the adjoining articular surfaces Plane: two flat surfaces Pivot: cylindrical projection inside a ring Hinge: concave and convex surfaces Ball-and-socket: rounded surface into a socket Ellipsoid: ellipsoid concave and convex surfaces Saddle: two saddle-shaped surfaces

13 Tab. 7.8

14 Tab. 7.8(Contd.)

15 Types of Movement Gliding Movements Angular Movement
Occur when two flat surfaces glide over one another Angular Movement Flexion and extension, plantar flexion and dorsiflexion, and abduction and adduction Circular Movements Rotation, pronation and supination, and circumduction Special Movements Elevation, depression, protraction, retraction, excursion, opposition, reposition, inversion and eversion Combination Movements Two or more other movements

16 Fig 7.42

17 Fig 7.43

18 Fig 7.44

19 Fig 7.45

20 Fig 7.46

21 Fig 7.47

22 Temporomandibular Joint
Complex gliding and hinge joint between the temporal and mandibular bones Capable of elevation, depression, protraction, retraction, and lateral and medial excursion movements Fig 7.48

23 Shoulder Joint Ball-and-socket joint between the head of humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula Strengthened by ligaments and muscles of rotator cuff Tendon of biceps brachii passes through joint capsule Capable of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, and circumduction Fig 7.48

24 Elbow Joint Compound hinge joint between humerus, ulna, and radius
Movement at this joint is limited to flexion and extension Fig 7.48

25 Hip Joint Ball-and-socket joint between head of femur and acetabulum of the coxal bone Capable of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, and circumduction Fig 7.48

26 Knee Joint Complex ellipsoid joint between femur and tibia
supported by many ligaments Allows flexion, extension, and slight rotation of the leg Fig 7.49

27 Page 187

28 Ankle Joint and Arches of the Foot
special hinge joint of tibia, fibula, and talus that allows dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion and eversion of the foot Ligaments of foot arches hold bones in an arch and transfer weight in the foot Fig 7.50

29 Page 189

30 Effects of Aging on the Joints
Connective tissue of the joints becomes less flexible and less elastic Results in joint rigidity Increases the rate of wear on the articulating surfaces Reduces the range of motion

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