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Human Anatomy & Physiology Ninth Edition PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Barbara Heard, Atlantic Cape Community College C H A P T E R © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.© Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images 8 Joints: Part A
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Joints (Articulations) Articulation –Site where two or more bones meet Functions of joints –Give skeleton mobility –Hold skeleton together Two classifications –Functional –Structural
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Functional Classification of Joints Based on –Amount of movement joint allows Three functional classifications: –Synarthroses—immovable joints –Amphiarthroses—slightly movable joints –Diarthroses—freely movable joints
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Structural Classification of Joints Based on –Material binding bones together –Presence/absence of joint cavity Three structural classifications: –Fibrous joints –Cartilaginous joints –Synovial joints
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Fibrous Joints Bones joined by dense fibrous connective tissue No joint cavity Most synarthrotic (immovable) –Depends on length of connective tissue fibers Three types: –Sutures –Syndesmoses –Gomphoses
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Fibrous Joints: Sutures Rigid, interlocking joints Immovable joints for protection of brain Contain short connective tissue fibers Allow for growth during youth In middle age, sutures ossify and fuse –Called Synostoses
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1a Fibrous joints. Suture Joint held together with very short, interconnecting fibers, and bone edges interlock. Found only in the skull. Dense fibrous connective tissue Suture line
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Fibrous Joints: Syndesmoses Bones connected by ligaments (bands of fibrous tissue) Fiber length varies so movement varies, i.e., –Little to no movement at distal tibiofibular joint –Large amount of movement at interosseous membrane connecting radius and ulna
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1b Fibrous joints. Syndesmosis Joint held together by a ligament. Fibrous tissue can vary in length, but is longer than in sutures. Fibula Tibia Ligament
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Fibrous Joints: Gomphoses Peg-in-socket joints of teeth in alveolar sockets Fibrous connection is the periodontal ligament
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1c Fibrous joints. Gomphosis “Peg in socket” fibrous joint. Periodontal ligament holds tooth in socket. Socket of alveolar process Periodontal ligament Root of tooth
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cartilaginous Joints Bones united by cartilage No joint cavity Not highly movable Two types: –Synchondroses –Symphyses
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cartilaginous Joints: Synchondroses Bar/plate of hyaline cartilage unites bones e.g., –Temporary epiphyseal plate joints Become synostoses after plate closure –Cartilage of 1 st rib with manubrium ~ All are synarthrotic
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.2a Cartilaginous joints. Synchondroses Bones united by hyaline cartilage Epiphyseal plate (temporary hyaline cartilage joint) Sternum (manubrium) Joint between first rib and sternum (immovable)
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cartilaginous Joints: Symphyses Fibrocartilage unites bone –Hyaline cartilage present as articular cartilage Strong, flexible amphiarthroses
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.2b Cartilaginous joints. Symphyses Bones united by fibrocartilage Body of vertebra Fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc (sandwiched between hyaline cartilage) Pubic symphysis
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints Bones separated by fluid-filled joint cavity All are diarthrotic Include ~ all limb joints; most joints of body
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints: Six Distinguishing Features 1. Articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage –Prevents crushing of bone ends 2. Joint (synovial) cavity –Small, fluid-filled potential space
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints: Six Distinguishing Features 3. Articular (joint) capsule –Two layers External Fibrous layer –Dense irregular connective tissue Inner Synovial membrane –Loose connective tissue –Makes synovial fluid
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints: Six Distinguishing Features 4. Synovial fluid –Viscous, slippery filtrate of plasma and hyaluronic acid –Lubricates and nourishes articular cartilage –Contains phagocytic cells to remove microbes and debris
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.3 General structure of a synovial joint. Ligament Joint cavity (contains synovial fluid) Articular (hyaline) cartilage Fibrous layer Synovial membrane (secretes synovial fluid) Articular capsule Periosteum
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints: Six Distinguishing Features 5. Different types of reinforcing ligaments –Capsular Thickened part of fibrous layer –Extracapsular Outside the capsule –Intracapsular Deep to capsule; covered by synovial membrane
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints: Six Distinguishing Features 6. Nerves and blood vessels –Nerve fibers detect pain, monitor joint position and stretch –Capillary beds supply filtrate for synovial fluid
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Other Features of Some Synovial Joints Fatty pads –For cushioning between fibrous layer and synovial membrane or bone Articular discs (menisci) –Fibrocartilage separates articular surfaces to improve "fit" of bone ends, stabilize joint, and reduce wear and tear
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Structures Associated with Synovial Joints Bursae –Sacs lined with synovial membrane Contain synovial fluid –Reduce friction where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together Tendon Sheaths –Elongated bursa wrapped completely around tendon subjected to friction
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.4a Bursae and tendon sheaths. Acromion of scapula Subacromial bursa Fibrous layer of articular capsule Tendon sheath Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle Frontal section through the right shoulder joint Joint cavity containing synovial fluid Articular cartilage Synovial membrane Fibrous layer Humerus
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.4b Bursae and tendon sheaths. Bursa rolls and lessens friction. Humerus head rolls medially as arm abducts. Humerus moving Enlargement of (a), showing how a bursa eliminates friction where a ligament (or other structure) would rub against a bone
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Three Stabilizing Factors at Synovial Joints Shapes of articular surfaces (minor role) Ligament number and location (limited role) Muscle tendons that cross joint (most important) –Muscle tone keeps tendons taut Extremely important in reinforcing shoulder and knee joints and arches of the foot
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary of Characteristics of Body Joints Consult Table 8.2 for: –Joint names –Articulating bones –Structural classification –Functional classification –Movements allowed
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 8.2 Structural and Functional Characteristics of Body Joints (1 of 4)
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 8.2 Structural and Functional Characteristics of Body Joints (2 of 4)
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 8.2 Structural and Functional Characteristics of Body Joints (3 of 4)
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 8.2 Structural and Functional Characteristics of Body Joints (4 of 4)
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints: Movements Allowed All muscles attach to bone or connective tissue at no fewer than two points –Origin—attachment to immovable bone –Insertion—attachment to movable bone Muscle contraction causes insertion to move toward origin Movements occur along transverse, frontal, or sagittal planes
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints: Range of Motion Nonaxial—slipping movements only Uniaxial—movement in one plane Biaxial—movement in two planes Multiaxial—movement in or around all three planes
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Three General Types of Movements at Synovial Joints 1. Gliding 2. Angular movements –Flexion, extension, hyperextension –Abduction, adduction –Circumduction 3. Rotation –Medial and lateral rotation
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Gliding Movements One flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface Examples: –Intercarpal joints –Intertarsal joints –Between articular processes of vertebrae
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Angular Movements Increase or decrease angle between two bones Movement along sagittal plane –Flexion—decreases the angle of the joint –Extension—increases the angle of the joint Hyperextension—excessive extension beyond normal range of motion
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Angular Movements Movement along frontal plane –Abduction—movement away from the midline –Adduction—movement toward the midline Circumduction –Involves flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction of limb –Limb describes cone in space
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Rotation Turning of bone around its own long axis –Toward midline or away from it –Medial and lateral rotation Examples: –Between C 1 and C 2 vertebrae –Rotation of humerus and femur
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5a Movements allowed by synovial joints. Gliding Gliding movements at the wrist
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5b Movements allowed by synovial joints. HyperextensionExtension Flexion Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension of the neck
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5c Movements allowed by synovial joints. Hyperextension Extension Flexion Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension of the vertebral column
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5d Movements allowed by synovial joints. Extension Flexion Hyper- extension Extension Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension at the shoulder and knee
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5e Movements allowed by synovial joints. Adduction Abduction Circumduction Angular movements: abduction, adduction, and circumduction of the upper limb at the shoulder
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5f Movements allowed by synovial joints. Rotation Lateral rotation Medial rotation Rotation of the head, neck, and lower limb
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements at Synovial Joints Supination and pronation of radius and ulna Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of foot Inversion and eversion of foot Protraction and retraction Elevation and depression of mandible Opposition of thumb of mandible
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6a Special body movements. Pronation (radius rotates over ulna) Supination (radius and ulna are parallel) Pronation (P) and supination (S) P S PLAY A&P Flix™: Movement at the Knee Joint A&P Flix™: Muscles of the forearm PLAY
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6b Special body movements. Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion Plantar flexion Dorsiflexion
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6c Special body movements. Inversion and eversion Inversion Eversion
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6d Special body movements. Protraction and retraction Retraction of mandiblet Protraction of mandible
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6e Special body movements. Elevation of mandible Depression of mandible Elevation and depression
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6f Special body movements. Opposition
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